Scientific Research on the Transcendental Meditation program

This research list compiles summaries, abstracts, and results for more than 368 original studies and reviews of research published in independent peer-reviewed journals or other edited scientific publications from 1970 to the present.


Health | Physiological + Psychological: | Rehabilitation | PTSD | 2016

Vernon A. Barnes , PhD* ; Andrea Monto, LMSW†; Jennifer J. Williams , LCSW‡; John L. Rigg , MD Impact of Transcendental Meditation on Psychotropic Medication Use Among Active Duty Military Service Members With Anxiety and PTSD Military Medicine Vol. 181, Issue 1The purpose of the study was to determine whether the regular practice of Transcendental Meditation (TM) decreased the need for psychotropic medications required for anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) management and increased psychological wellbeing. The sample included 74 military Service Members with documented PTSD or anxiety disorder not otherwise specified (ADNOS), 37 that practiced TM and 37 that did not. At 1 month, 83.7% of the TM group stabilized, decreased, or ceased medications and 10.8% increased medication dosage; compared with 59.4% of controls that showed stabilizations, decreases, or cessations; and 40.5% that increased medications (p < 0.03). A similar pattern was observed after 2 (p < 0.27), 3 (p < 0.002), and 6 months (p < 0.34). Notably, there was a 20.5% difference between groups in severity of psychological symptoms after 6 months, that is, the control group experienced an increase in symptom severity compared with the group practicing TM. These findings provide insight into the benefits of TM as a viable treatment modality in military treatment facilities for reducing PTSD and ADNOS psychological symptoms and associated medication use.

Health | Physiological + Psychological: | Stress Reduction in Caregivers | 2015

Sanford Nidich, Randi J Nidich, John Salerno, Brooke Hadfield and Charles Elder Stress Reduction with the Transcendental Meditation program in Caregivers: A Pilot Study International Archives of Nursing and Health Care Vol 1, Issue 2

Objective: To determine feasibility and potential effects of the Transcendental Meditation® (TM) technique on caregivers’ mental health and spiritual well-being.

Methods: Twenty-three caregivers learned the TM program over five sessions and attended twice monthly group meetings over a two month period. Participants practiced at home for twenty minutes twice a day. Outcomes included perceived stress using Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale, Total Mood Disturbance using the profile of Mood States (POMS), spiritual well-being using the FACIT scale, and levels of stress and perceived physical health using the Caregiver Self-Assessment Questionnaire.

Results: Significant improvements were shown in perceived stress, spiritual well-being, Total Mood Disturbance, and POMS subscales (p values < .001) over the two-month study. Participants rated their current level of stress significantly lower at posttest compared to baseline (p < .001) and perceived physical health as significantly improved (p < .019). Compliance with TM home practice was > 90%. Further qualitative evaluation of participants suggested improvements in energy level, feeling of calmness, and resilience, and reduced anxiety and other psychosocial stress.

Discussion: This pilot study showed decreases in perceived stress, mood disturbance, including anxiety, depression, anger, confusion and fatigue, and an increase in spiritual well-being (faith in the future and purposefulness). These findings suggest that further research is warranted on the role of the TM technique in managing the mental and physical health of family and professional caregivers.

Health | Physiological | Reduced Trait Anxiety | 2013

Orme-Johnson, D., Barnes, V., Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (2013;19(10):1-12)The Transcendental Meditation® technique (TM) has a large effect on reducing trait anxiety for people with high anxiety. Trait anxiety is a measure of how anxious a person usually is, as opposed to state anxiety, which refers to how anxious we are at the moment. A meta-analysis is an objective means to draw conclusions from all the research in a field. This meta-analysis covered 16 randomized-controlled trials, the gold standard in medical research, and included 1295 subjects from various walks of life, age groups, and life situations. TM was compared with various control groups, including treatment-as-usual, individual and group psychotherapy, and various relaxation techniques. Studies on high stress groups, such as veterans suffering from PTSD and prison inmates, showed dramatic reductions in anxiety from TM practice, whereas studies of groups with only moderately elevated anxiety levels, such as normal adults and college students, showed more modest changes.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | 1981

Agarwal BL, Kharbanda A. Effect of transcendental meditation on mild and moderate hypertension.Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 1981 29:591-596 Reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were found in mild and moderately hypertensive subjects after six months of practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique. It is suggested that Transcendental Meditation may be used as the primary treatment in such cases. Reduction of high blood pressure is of great importance for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Sixteen patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension undertook a carefully supervised program of Transcendental Meditation (TM). After six months, there were falls in mean systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures of 16.75, 9.81, and 12.12 respectively which were highly significant. Ten (62.5%) of the 16 patients were considered to have responded satisfactorily as they showed a fall of mean arterial pressure by 15 mmHg or more, or a diastolic blood pressure of less than 90 mmHg. Results are comparable to treatment with drugs. Most of the reduction in pressure took place in the first two months. A feeling of well-being was reported by nearly all the subjects.

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg3840 | Health: Longevity | Aging; Reduced Blood Pressure, Improved Cognitive Functioning and Increased Longevity | RCT | 1989

Alexander CN, Langer EJ, Newman RI, Chandler HM, Davies JL. Transcendental Meditation, mindfulness, and longevity: an experimental study with the elderly. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1989 57(6):950-964 A meticulously controlled randomized study at Harvard University found that elderly individuals who learned the Transcendental Meditation technique showed significantly greater improvements in a variety of age-related aspects of physical and mental health and well-being than subjects taught other techniques or a no treatment control group. In particular, those who learned a relaxation procedure that attempted to imitate Transcendental Meditation technique showed no improvement on any measure. A clear majority of subjects practicing the TM technique rated their technique as particularly useful and easy to practice in contrast to lower rates for the other techniques. Most strikingly, after three years, all those who had learned the TM technique were still living in contrast to significantly lower survival rates for the other three groups and for the remaining inhabitants of the other institutions where the study was conducted. Benefits for the Elderly Demonstrating Reversal of Aging: Increased Longevity (Higher Survival Rate); Reduction of Systolic Blood Pressure to More Ideal Levels; Improved Mental Health (Improvements on Nursesi Mental Health Ratings); Increased Cognitive Flexibility (Verbal Task); Increased Learning Ability (Paired Associate Learning Task); Improvements in Self-Reported Measures of Behavioral Flexibility and Aging (Greater Ability to Cope with Inconvenience, Reduced Feelings of Being Old); Greater Sense of Well-Being (Feeling Better and More Relaxed After Transcendental Meditation; Feeling Better During Transcendental Meditation; High Interest in Transcendental Meditation; and High Ratings of the Value of Transcendental Meditation.)

Health | Physiological Review CPVol 6 Pg 4255 | Cardiovascular Health Rehabilitation Affective, Development of Personality | Comparing Techniques Reviews 4 Meta-Analyses | 1994

Alexander CN, Robinson P, Orme-Johnson DW, Schneider RH, Walton KG. The effects of Transcendental Meditation compared to other methods of relaxation in reducing risk factors, morbidity, and mortality. Homeostasis 1994 352:243-264 This paper reviews four meta-analyses that show the superiority of the Transcendental Meditation program compared to other techniques in producing deep rest, decreasing anxiety, increasing self-actualization, and decreasing substance abuse (cigarettes, drugs, alcohol). It also reviews individual well controlled studies on the beneficial effects of this technique on hypertension, mortality, medical care, and medical expenses, and discusses physiological mechanisms for these effects.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension and Aging/Gender | RCT | 1996

Alexander CN, Schneider RH, Staggers F, Sheppard W, Clayborne BM, Rainforth MV, Salerno J, Kondwani K, Smith S, Walton K, Egan B. Trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans: II. Sex and risk subgroup analysis. Hypertension 1996 28(2):228-237 More Ideal Levels of Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Subjects who Learned the Transcendental Meditation Programme: Reduction of HIgh Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure Found for both Men and Women, and both High and Low Psychosocial Stress Subjects: Reduction of High Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure Irrespective of Score on Five other Measures of Risk for High Blood Pressure, Obesity, Alcohol Use, Physical Inactivity, Dietary Sodium-Potassium Intake and Index of all Risk Factors Combined.

Health | Physiological | Efficiency & Stability | Respiratory Changes | 1970

Allison J. Respiratory changes during Transcendental Meditation. Lancet 1970 7651:833 Breath rate decreased during the practice of the TM technique, indicating a more relaxed and rested state.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | Meta | 2008

Anderson JW, Liu C, Kryscio RJ. Blood pressure response to Transcendental Meditation: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Hypertension 2008 21(3):310-316 According to a definitive new meta-analysis of previous studies on stress reduction programs and high blood pressure, the Transcendental Meditation technique was found to produce a statistically significant reduction in high blood pressure—an effect not found with other forms of relaxation, meditation, biofeedback or stress management. Blood pressure dropped significantly in all groups practicing TM compared to the controls. The reduction in blood pressure was an average of 5 points on the systolic and 3 points on the diastolic readings. These results are not only statistically significant, they are clinically significant. These results could be expected to result in 15 – 20% less cardiovascular disease. Jim Anderson and colleagues from the University of Kentucky pooled data from nine published well controlled studies that involved a total of 711 people. Subjects ranged in age from adolescents (15-18 years) to seniors (M age 81.3 + or – 9.8 years) and included normotensive, prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals.

Health | Physiological | Motor & Perceptual | Reaction Time | 1974

Appelle S, Oswald LE. Simple reaction time as a function of alertness and prior mental activity.Perceptual and Motor Skills 1974 38(3):1263-1268 Subjects practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique were found to have faster reactions before and after a session of the technique, compared with other subjects before and after either rest or a simple task.

Health | Physiological | EEG | TC | 2004

Arenander A, Travis FT. Brain patterns of Self-awareness. In B Beitman, J Nair (eds), Self-Awareness Deficits. New York: WW Norton, 2004 This chapter has introduced the concept of a foundational state of self- awareness, which is posited to be both independent and the source of conscious experiences. Research suggests that high levels of broadband frontal EEG coherence are associated with this ground state of self-awareness. This basic awareness may act as an empty canvas upon which we organize, direct, and experience the ever-changing circumstances of our lives, . Intact, highly synchronous prefrontal circuits appear to be critical to the direct experience of this ground state of awareness, as well as the transition from an episodic, meditation-dependent experience of this condition to its gradual development as a coexisting continuum across waking, dreaming, and sleeping states of consciousness. Our review supports the existence of at least two primary modes of self-awareness, one with and one without content, as well as the possibility of a third, integrated mode, in which knower and known, self and objects coexist. Future research should continue to characterize oth this putative ground of self-awareness and the consequences of its repeated and systematic experience on brain plasticity and function. Once such a research-based foundation is established, then the various, diverse expressions of self-awareness can be better understood as progressive layers of processing and interaction between the knower (self-awareness) and the known (the inner and outer environment). In turn, we should be in a better position to understand and effectively treat the variety of dysfunctional modes of self-awareness.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1666 | EEG | TC | 1984

Badawi K, Wallace RK, Orme-Johnson D, Rouzeré A-M. Electrophysiologic characteristics of respiratory suspension periods occurring during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation program. Psychosomatic Medicine 1984 46(3):267-276 The combination of inner alertness, respiratory suspension, and high EEG coherence was found to characterize the state of transcendental consciousness experienced during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Left Ventricular Mass | RCT | 2012

Barnes VA, Kapuku GK, Treiber FA. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on left ventricular mass in African American adolescents. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 (in press)  Increased left ventricular mass (LVM) has long been known to increase the risk for coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure, stroke, cardiac arrhythmias, and sudden death. An early sign of ventricular remodeling is increased left ventricular mass (LVM) which over time may lead to left ventricular hypertrophy, the strongest predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, other than advancing ageThe successful implementation of the intervention points to the potential of school-based stress reduction programs as a means of decreasing likelihood of early onset of LVH (left ventricular hypertrophy) in high-risk youth. These findings indicate that among a group of prehypertensive African American adolescents, 4 months of TM compared to heath education resulted in a significant decrease in LVMI, and these changes were maintained at 4-month follow-up. Methods. 62 (30 TM; 32 CTL) African American adolescents (age 16.2 ± 1.3 years) with high normal systolic BP were randomly assigned to either 4-month Transcendental Meditation (TM) or health education control groups. The echocardiographic-derived measure of LVM index (LVMI = LVM/ht2.7) was measured before and after the 4-month TM study and at 4-month followup. 2D-guided M-mode echocardiography using a Hewlett Packard 5500 echosonograph was used to determine LVMI. Results. The TM group exhibited a greater decrease in LVMI at 4-month followup compared to the CTL group (−2.6 versus +0.3gm/ht2.7, P < 0.04). The TM group exhibited a lesser increase in BMI at 4-month follow-up compared to the CTL group (0.2 ± 1.6 versus 1.1 ± 1.4, P < 0.03).

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension in Youth & Adults | 2006

Barnes VA, Orme-Johnson DW. Clinical and pre-clinical applications of the Transcendental Meditation program in the prevention and treatment of essential hypertension and cardiovascular disease in youth and adults. Current Hypertension Reviews 2006 2(3):207-218 This study supports previous and subsequent research showing, clinically important reductions in blood pressure and that sustained blood pressure changes of the magnitude produced by TM would be associated with substantially decreased risk of heart attack and stroke, the leading cause of mortality worldwide.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | 2008

Barnes VA, Orme-Johnson DW. El impacto de la reduccion del estres en el hypertension esencial y las enfermedades cardiovasculares. Revista Internacional De Ciencias Del Deporte (International Journal of Sports Science) 2008 4(12):1-30 This study supports previous and subsequent research showing, clinically important reductions in blood pressure and that sustained blood pressure changes of the magnitude produced by TM would be associated with substantially decreased risk of heart attack and stroke, the leading cause of mortality worldwide.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Research Review Update | 2012

Barnes VA, Orme-Johnson DW. Prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in adolescents and adults through the Transcendental Meditation Program®: a research review update. Current Hypertension Reviews 2012 8(3):1-16 The pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular diseases are thought to be exacerbated by stress. Basic research indicates that the Transcendental Meditation® technique produces acute and longitudinal reductions in sympathetic tone and stress reactivity. In adolescents at risk for hypertension, the technique has been found to reduce resting and ambulatory blood pressure, left ventricular mass, cardiovascular reactivity, and to improve school behavior. Research on adults with mild or moderate essential hypertension has reported decreased blood pressure and reduced use of anti-hypertensive medication. The technique has also been reported to decrease symptoms of angina pectoris and carotid atherosclerosis, to reduce cardiovascular risk factors, including alcohol and tobacco use, to markedly reduce medical care utilization for cardiovascular diseases, and to significantly decrease cardiovascular and all-cause morbidity and mortality. These findings have important implications for inclusion of the Transcendental Meditation program in efforts to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases and their clinical consequences. Media Summary excerpt: In teens, the TM technique has been found to reduce blood pressure, improve heart structure and improve school behavior. According to the paper, the technique has been shown to be a safe alternative. The NIH-sponsored clinical trials conducted with TM mentioned in this review did not observe any adverse effects from TM practice. In adults the technique reduced stress hormones and other physiological measures of stress and produced more rapid recovery from stress, decreased blood pressure and use of blood pressure medication, decreased heart pain in angina patients, cleared the arteries, reducing the risk of stroke, improved distance walked in patients with congestive heart failure, and decreased alcohol and tobacco use, anxiety, depression, and medical care usage and expenditures. The technique also decreased risk of death from heart disease, cancer, and all causes.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension Increased Longevity | RCT | 2005

Barnes VA, Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Rainforth M, Staggers F, Salerno, J. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on mortality in older African Americans with hypertension—eight-year follow-up. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):201-216 During the eight years of follow up covered in this study, older African Americans with mild hypertension who practiced the TM technique showed lower mortality rates from cardiovascular disease compared to behavioral health education controls. In the intent-to-treat analysis, the adjusted relative risk for cardiovascular disease mortality of the TM group compared with Health Education was significantly reduced by 81%. The adjusted relative risk for all cause mortality of the TM group compared with Progressive Muscle Relaxation showed a trend with 57 % reduction in the analysis at 3 months. The adjusted relative risk for cancer of the TM group was reduced by 68% as compared with Health Education. This data suggests long term efficacy in reducing risk of mortality in older African Americans in a low socioeconomic status, inner city primary health care setting. To our knowledge this is the first controlled trial assessing the effects of stress reduction or any non-pharmacological intervention for hypertension for mortality in a high risk population.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension Stress Reduction | 1997

Barnes VA, Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Staggers F. Stress, stress reduction, and hypertension in African Americans. Journal of the National Medical Association 1997 89(7):464-476 This study supports previous and subsequent research showing, clinically important reductions in blood pressure and that sustained blood pressure changes of the magnitude produced by TM would be associated with substantially decreased risk of heart attack and stroke, the leading cause of mortality worldwide.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension Increased Longevity | RCT | 2001

Barnes VA, Treiber FA, Davis H. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on cardiovascular function at rest and during acute stress in adolescents with high normal blood pressure. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 2001 51(4):597-605 This randomized controlled study that examined the impact of the TM practice on BP reactivity in African American adolescents with high normal resting systolic blood pressure found that compared to the control group subjects, TM subjects exhibited significantly greater decreases from pre to post intervention in systolic blood pressure, heart rate and cardiac output reactivity to a car driving stressor and reduced systolic blood pressure reactivity to a social stressor interview. The study also found that the TM group exhibited a statistically significant 4.8-mmHg decreases in resting systolic blood pressure from pre-intervention to two months post-intervention, compared with an increase in 2.6-mmHg in the control group. These findings suggest that the TM practice may provide protection from the detrimental effects of exaggerated cardiovascular stress reactivity.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension Education Adolescent | RCT | 2004

Barnes VA, Treiber FA, Johnson MH. Impact of stress reduction on ambulatory blood pressure in African American adolescents. American Journal of Hypertension 2004 17(4):366-369 One hundred African American teenagers with blood pressure at the high end of normal were randomly assigned to two groups: One group learned TM and meditated twice a day for four months, whereas the other (control group) received health education lectures for a similar amount of time. At the end of the study, the TM group showed a significant drop in blood pressure compared with the control group, an effect that still held four months after the study ended. The TM group also had lower rates of absenteeism, suspensions and school rule violations than the control group.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | 1999

Barnes VA, Treiber FA, Turner JR, Davis H, Strong WB. Acute effects of Transcendental Meditation on hemodynamic functioning in middle-aged adults. Psychosomatic Medicine 1999 61(4):525-531Researchers who used impedance cardiography to measure total vascular peripheral resistance found that both blood pressure and total peripheral resistance decreased during the TM technique, suggesting an underlying hemodynamic mechanism for its cardio-protective effects.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1666 | EEG | TC | 1984

Badawi K, Wallace RK, Orme-Johnson D, Rouzeré A-M. Electrophysiologic characteristics of respiratory suspension periods occurring during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation program. Psychosomatic Medicine 1984 46(3):267-276 The combination of inner alertness, respiratory suspension, and high EEG coherence was found to characterize the state of transcendental consciousness experienced during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Left Ventricular Mass | RCT | 2012

Barnes VA, Kapuku GK, Treiber FA. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on left ventricular mass in African American adolescents. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 (in press)  Increased left ventricular mass (LVM) has long been known to increase the risk for coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure, stroke, cardiac arrhythmias, and sudden death. An early sign of ventricular remodeling is increased left ventricular mass (LVM) which over time may lead to left ventricular hypertrophy, the strongest predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, other than advancing ageThe successful implementation of the intervention points to the potential of school-based stress reduction programs as a means of decreasing likelihood of early onset of LVH (left ventricular hypertrophy) in high-risk youth. These findings indicate that among a group of prehypertensive African American adolescents, 4 months of TM compared to heath education resulted in a significant decrease in LVMI, and these changes were maintained at 4-month follow-up. Methods. 62 (30 TM; 32 CTL) African American adolescents (age 16.2 ± 1.3 years) with high normal systolic BP were randomly assigned to either 4-month Transcendental Meditation (TM) or health education control groups. The echocardiographic-derived measure of LVM index (LVMI = LVM/ht2.7) was measured before and after the 4-month TM study and at 4-month followup. 2D-guided M-mode echocardiography using a Hewlett Packard 5500 echosonograph was used to determine LVMI. Results. The TM group exhibited a greater decrease in LVMI at 4-month followup compared to the CTL group (−2.6 versus +0.3gm/ht2.7, P < 0.04). The TM group exhibited a lesser increase in BMI at 4-month follow-up compared to the CTL group (0.2 ± 1.6 versus 1.1 ± 1.4, P < 0.03).

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension in Youth & Adults | 2006

Barnes VA, Orme-Johnson DW. Clinical and pre-clinical applications of the Transcendental Meditation program in the prevention and treatment of essential hypertension and cardiovascular disease in youth and adults. Current Hypertension Reviews 2006 2(3):207-218 This study supports previous and subsequent research showing, clinically important reductions in blood pressure and that sustained blood pressure changes of the magnitude produced by TM would be associated with substantially decreased risk of heart attack and stroke, the leading cause of mortality worldwide.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | 2008

Barnes VA, Orme-Johnson DW. El impacto de la reduccion del estres en el hypertension esencial y las enfermedades cardiovasculares. Revista Internacional De Ciencias Del Deporte (International Journal of Sports Science) 2008 4(12):1-30 This study supports previous and subsequent research showing, clinically important reductions in blood pressure and that sustained blood pressure changes of the magnitude produced by TM would be associated with substantially decreased risk of heart attack and stroke, the leading cause of mortality worldwide.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Research Review Update | 2012

Barnes VA, Orme-Johnson DW. Prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in adolescents and adults through the Transcendental Meditation Program®: a research review update. Current Hypertension Reviews 2012 8(3):1-16 The pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular diseases are thought to be exacerbated by stress. Basic research indicates that the Transcendental Meditation® technique produces acute and longitudinal reductions in sympathetic tone and stress reactivity. In adolescents at risk for hypertension, the technique has been found to reduce resting and ambulatory blood pressure, left ventricular mass, cardiovascular reactivity, and to improve school behavior. Research on adults with mild or moderate essential hypertension has reported decreased blood pressure and reduced use of anti-hypertensive medication. The technique has also been reported to decrease symptoms of angina pectoris and carotid atherosclerosis, to reduce cardiovascular risk factors, including alcohol and tobacco use, to markedly reduce medical care utilization for cardiovascular diseases, and to significantly decrease cardiovascular and all-cause morbidity and mortality. These findings have important implications for inclusion of the Transcendental Meditation program in efforts to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases and their clinical consequences. Media Summary excerpt: In teens, the TM technique has been found to reduce blood pressure, improve heart structure and improve school behavior. According to the paper, the technique has been shown to be a safe alternative. The NIH-sponsored clinical trials conducted with TM mentioned in this review did not observe any adverse effects from TM practice. In adults the technique reduced stress hormones and other physiological measures of stress and produced more rapid recovery from stress, decreased blood pressure and use of blood pressure medication, decreased heart pain in angina patients, cleared the arteries, reducing the risk of stroke, improved distance walked in patients with congestive heart failure, and decreased alcohol and tobacco use, anxiety, depression, and medical care usage and expenditures. The technique also decreased risk of death from heart disease, cancer, and all causes.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension Increased Longevity | RCT | 2005

Barnes VA, Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Rainforth M, Staggers F, Salerno, J. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on mortality in older African Americans with hypertension—eight-year follow-up. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):201-216 During the eight years of follow up covered in this study, older African Americans with mild hypertension who practiced the TM technique showed lower mortality rates from cardiovascular disease compared to behavioral health education controls. In the intent-to-treat analysis, the adjusted relative risk for cardiovascular disease mortality of the TM group compared with Health Education was significantly reduced by 81%. The adjusted relative risk for all cause mortality of the TM group compared with Progressive Muscle Relaxation showed a trend with 57 % reduction in the analysis at 3 months. The adjusted relative risk for cancer of the TM group was reduced by 68% as compared with Health Education. This data suggests long term efficacy in reducing risk of mortality in older African Americans in a low socioeconomic status, inner city primary health care setting. To our knowledge this is the first controlled trial assessing the effects of stress reduction or any non-pharmacological intervention for hypertension for mortality in a high risk population.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension Stress Reduction | 1997

Barnes VA, Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Staggers F. Stress, stress reduction, and hypertension in African Americans. Journal of the National Medical Association 1997 89(7):464-476 This study supports previous and subsequent research showing, clinically important reductions in blood pressure and that sustained blood pressure changes of the magnitude produced by TM would be associated with substantially decreased risk of heart attack and stroke, the leading cause of mortality worldwide.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension Increased Longevity | RCT | 2001

Barnes VA, Treiber FA, Davis H. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on cardiovascular function at rest and during acute stress in adolescents with high normal blood pressure. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 2001 51(4):597-605 This randomized controlled study that examined the impact of the TM practice on BP reactivity in African American adolescents with high normal resting systolic blood pressure found that compared to the control group subjects, TM subjects exhibited significantly greater decreases from pre to post intervention in systolic blood pressure, heart rate and cardiac output reactivity to a car driving stressor and reduced systolic blood pressure reactivity to a social stressor interview. The study also found that the TM group exhibited a statistically significant 4.8-mmHg decreases in resting systolic blood pressure from pre-intervention to two months post-intervention, compared with an increase in 2.6-mmHg in the control group. These findings suggest that the TM practice may provide protection from the detrimental effects of exaggerated cardiovascular stress reactivity.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension Education Adolescent | RCT | 2004

Barnes VA, Treiber FA, Johnson MH. Impact of stress reduction on ambulatory blood pressure in African American adolescents. American Journal of Hypertension 2004 17(4):366-369 One hundred African American teenagers with blood pressure at the high end of normal were randomly assigned to two groups: One group learned TM and meditated twice a day for four months, whereas the other (control group) received health education lectures for a similar amount of time. At the end of the study, the TM group showed a significant drop in blood pressure compared with the control group, an effect that still held four months after the study ended. The TM group also had lower rates of absenteeism, suspensions and school rule violations than the control group.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | 1999

Barnes VA, Treiber FA, Turner JR, Davis H, Strong WB. Acute effects of Transcendental Meditation on hemodynamic functioning in middle-aged adults. Psychosomatic Medicine 1999 61(4):525-531Researchers who used impedance cardiography to measure total vascular peripheral resistance found that both blood pressure and total peripheral resistance decreased during the TM technique, suggesting an underlying hemodynamic mechanism for its cardio-protective effects.

Health | Review Paper CP Vol4 Pg2790 | Health | TC+ | 1980

Blicher B, Blondeau F, Choquette C, Deans A, Drouin P, Glaser J, Thibaudeau P. Méditation Transcendantale: revue de la littérature scientifique. Le Médecin du Québec 1980 15(8):46-66 The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program is found to result in a coherent state of neurological functioning which is maintained during activity. This forms the basis for optimal human performance and the development of higher states of consciousness as described in the Vedic Literature.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | 2006

Bovee JC. Effects of Transcendental Meditation on blood pressure: a literature review. Modern Psychological Studies 2006 11:1-11 Many prevention and treatments methods exist for hypertension, but not all are effective or easy to incorporate into one’s life. Stress-reduction methods, including Transcendental Meditation (TM), has been suggested as such a method, but have received inconsistent reviews about its effect on blood pressure. This literature review of twelve clinical studies concludes patients who practice TM can significantly reduce blood pressure. The technique was found to be effective for groups at high risk for hypertension, such as African-Americans, as well as low-risk groups. TM also appears to be more effective than progressive muscle relaxation, another popular stress-management technique. TM should be incorporated into plans for treatment of hypertension. In all but three (Blackwell et al., 1976; Pollack et al., 1977; Castillo-Richmond et al., 2001) of the 11 studies reviewed, participants who practiced TM reduced their blood pressure. Two of the studies that did not support the hypothesis, lacked control groups and were methodologically weak (Blackwell et al., 1976; Pollack et al., 1977). Of the eight controlled studies, seven support the hypothesis that TM significantly lowers blood pressure. In the only study that failed to show these results, change in blood pressure was a secondary outcome and not investigated in full (Castillo-Richmond et al., 2001). A more in depth analysis and statistical control of confounding variables may have produced different results. The findings of the controlled trials are convincing and generalizable. The majority of the studies carefully matched treatments for daily time commitment, attention from instructors, and checked for differences in expected treatment benefits between groups. These precautions help to rule out the contributions of non-specific factors simply associated with being part of an intervention. Many studies controlled for anthropometric and lifestyle differences between groups that existed at baseline. Results are generalizable to both resting blood pressure (Alexander et al., 1996; Barnes et al., 2001; Schneider et al., 1995; Schneider et al., 2005; Seer & Raeburn, 1980; Wenneberg et al., 1997) and ambulatory blood pressure (Barnes et al., 2004; Wenneberg et al., 1997), to normotensives (Barnes et al., 2001; Barnes et al., 2004, Wenneberg et al., 1997) and hypertensives (Alexander et al., 1996; Schneider et al., 1995; Schneider et al., 2005; Seer & Raeburn, 1980), across ethnicities and ages. TM was found to be a successful antihypertensive method across different lifestyle risk factors (Alexander et al., 1996) and for those groups especially at risk for elevated blood pressure, such as women (Alexander et al., 1996), the elderly (Schneider et al., 1995), African Americans (Barnes et al., 2004; Schneider et al., 1995, and adolescents with high normal blood pressure (Barnes et al., 2001; Barnes et al., 2004). Before excluding behavioral stress-reduction approaches as a recommendation for treatment of high blood pressure, as was the case in the recent JNC report (2003), clinical outcomes of the various stress-reduction techniques should be evaluated individually in order to not overlook any promising methods. http://campus.lakeforest.edu/kelley/bovee-2006.pdf

Health | Psychological | Affective | PTSD | RCT | 1985

Brooks JS, Scarano T. Transcendental Meditation in the treatment of post-Vietnam adjustment.Journal of Counseling and Development 1985 64:212-215 Over a three month period, people practicing the TM program showed clear-cut improvements in all aspects of PTSD syndrome, with significant decreases in depression, anxiety, insomnia, alcohol consumption, improvement in family problems, reduced severity of delayed stress syndrome and less emotional numbness, as well as greater ease in obtaining a job. By contrast the control group, who received standard treatment with psychotherapy showed no significant change on any measure.

Health | Physiological CPVol 2 Pg 804 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Increase in Serotonin - Rest and Fulfillment and Decrease in Fight or Flight response | 1976

Bujatti M, Riederer P. Serotonin, noradrenaline, dopamine metabolites in Transcendental Meditation.Journal of Neural Transmission 1976 39(3):257-267 Practitioners of the TM technique showed highly significant increases in levels of 5-HIAA (a serotonin metabolite) indicating an increase in rest and fulfillment and lower levels of VMA (an adrenaline and non-adrenaline metabolite) indicating a decrease in the fight or flight (arousal) response as compared to control subjects.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Cholesterol/Stress | 1999

Calderon R, Schneider R, Alexander CN, Myers H, Nidich S, Haney C. Stress, stress reduction and hypercholesterolemia in African Americans and whites: a review. Ethnicity and Disease 1999 9:451-462 This study supports previous and subsequent research showing significant improvement in cardiovascular health thru the practice of the TM technique.

Health | Physiological | Hypertension | Atherosclerosis | RCT | 2000

Castillo-Richmond A, Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Cook R, Myers H, Nidich S, Haney C, Rainforth M, Salerno J. Effects of stress reduction on carotid atherosclerosis in hypertensive African Americans.Stroke 2000 31(3):568-573 This randomized controlled trial of 60 African American subjects compared the effects of TM practice with a heart disease education group on carotid intima-media thickness, a validated surrogate measure for coronary and cerebral atherosclerosis. The results indicated a statistically significant decrease in carotid intima-media thickness, in the TM group by a 0.098mm (95% confidence interval [CI] [-0.198, 0.003mm]) compared with an increase of 0.054mm (95% CI [-0.05, 0.158mm]) in the control group    (p=.038 for difference between groups), suggesting that TM may reduce carotid atherosclerosis in hypertensive African Americans. The literature indicates that changes of this magnitude predict a reduction in heart attacks (MI) by 11% (Salonen and Salonen 1993) and stroke by 7.7.% to 15% (O’Leary et al., by 1999)

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1787 | Cardiovascular | Reduced Cholesterol | 1978

Cooper M, Aygen M. Effect of meditation on serum cholesterol and blood pressure. Harefuah, Journal of the Israel Medical Association 1978 95(1):1-2 Subjects with normal or slightly elevated blood pressure and serum cholesterol levels showed reduction n both these parameters as a result of the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique. Over 10-14 months the TM group showed a significant decrease in both diastolic and systolic blood pressure (p<.001). Over the same time period the TM group showed a significant decrease in serum cholesterol concentration (p<.001).

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1819 | Cardiovascular | Reduced Cholesterol | 1979

Cooper M, Aygen M. Transcendental Meditation in the management of hypercholesterolemia. Journal of Human Stress 1979 5(4):24-27 Long term reduction in serum cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic subjects were found to result from the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique. After 11 months, the subjects of the meditation group showed a mean fasting serum cholesterol which was significantly less than their own baseline (p<.005). Five reduced their serum cholesterol by 4% to 9%, three by 10% to 20%, and three by 20% to 35%.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Angina Symptoms | 2000

Cunningham CH, Brown S, Kaski JC. The effects of Transcendental Meditation on symptoms and electrocardiographic changes in patients with cardiac syndrome X: a pilot study. American Journal of Cardiology 2000 85(5):653-655 A British study found positive effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on exercise ECG testing and quality of life in patients with cardiac syndrome X (anginal chest pain, positive response to exercise stress testing, and normal coronary angiogram.) Note: Despite a generally good prognosis, this distressing and disabling condition often necessitates expensive and invasive investigations, and recurrent hospital admissions; drug treatment is frequently unsatisfactory.

Health | Physiological CPVol 5 Pg2964 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Unique State of Rest Difference Between TM and Rest | Meta | 1987

Dillbeck MC, Orme-Johnson DW. Physiological differences between Transcendental Meditation and rest. American Psychologist 1987 42(9):879-881 A meta-analysis of 31 research studies showed deep rest during the Transcendental Meditation technique and greater physiological stability and relaxation outside the practice. The research evidence is generally consistent with the hypothesis that there is reduced somatic arousal during the TM technique in comparison with rest, yet at the same time other physiological changes indicative of increased alertness are also present. In addition, although there is evidence that TM meditators respond different to stress than controls do, this difference may be addressed more successfully by looking at adaptive efficiency of physiological processes rather than reduction of somatic arousal during stress.

Health | Physiological CPVol 2 Pg 874 | Health | Self-Care Dialysis/Transplant Patient | 1976

Doner DW. The Transcendental Meditation technique—a self-care program for the dialysis/transplant patient. Journal of the American Association of Nephrology Nurses and Technicians 1976 3(3):119-125 The TM program was found to be of great benefit in improving the quality of life of patients under treatment for advanced kidney disease.

Health | Physiological | Health | Diabetes | 2006

Elder C, Aickin M, Bauer V, Cairns J, Vuckovic N. Randomized trial of a whole-system Ayurvedic protocol for type 2 diabetes. Alternative Therapies 2006 12(5):24-30 This study has identified benefits of the Transcendental Meditation technique in the management of Type 2 diabetes.

Health | Physiological | Metabolic & Biochemical | Neurotransmitter Enhanced Functioning | 2000

Elias AN, Guich S, Wilson AF. Ketosis with enhanced GABAergic tone promotes physiological changes in Transcendental Meditation. Medical Hypotheses 2000 54(4):660-662 Transcendental meditation (TM) is a mental technique for physical and mental relaxation which is associated with changes in the secretion and release of several pituitary hormones. The hormonal changes induced by TM mimic the effects of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). It is hypothesized that TM produces changes in pituitary hormone secretion by enhancing hypothalamic GABAergic tone as a result of TM associated ketosis. Ketosis enhances the entry of glutamate, the amino acid substrate of GABA into synaptosomes, making more glutamate available for conversion to GABA through the glutamate decarboxylase pathway.

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg4214 | Metabolic Changes | Neurotransmitters | 1995

Elias AN, Wilson AF. Serum hormonal concentrations following Transcendental Meditation: potential role of gamma aminobutyric acid. Medical Hypotheses 1995 44(4):287-291 The authors review research on the hormonal changes associated with the Transcendental Meditation Technique and attempt to understand these changes in light of the known effects of the neurotransmitter gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) on hormonal secretion and release, proposing that one of the mechanisms by which the Transcendental Meditation Technique produces relaxation is by enhancing the effects of an endogenous neurotransmitter.

Health | Physiological CPVol 5 Pg2968 | Metabolic Changes | Unique State of Rest; Reduced Metabolic & Heart Rate | 1980

Farrell DJ. The reduction in metabolic rate and heart rate of man during meditation. In LE Mount (ed.),Energy Metabolism (pp.279-282). EAAP Publication # 26. London: Butterworth & Co., 1980 Metabolic Rate (as evidenced by heat production) and heart rate decreased during the Transcendental Meditation technique as compared to an eyes-closed rest baseline period.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1611 | Physiological Efficiency | TC Respiratory Suspension | 1982

Farrow JT, Hebert JR. Breath suspension during the Transcendental Meditation technique.Psychosomatic Medicine 1982 44(2):133-153 Periods of breath suspension were found to be a frequent occurrence during the Transcendental Meditation technique. These periods, together with low metabolic rate, reduced heart rate, increased autonomic stability and increased EEG coherence were found to be associated with experience of pure consciousness during the Transcendental Meditation technique.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Atherosclerosis in Elderly | RCT | 2002

Fields JZ, Walton KW, Schneider RH, Nidich SI, Pomerantz R, Suchdev P, Castillo-Richmond A, Payne K, Clark ET, Rainforth M. Effect of a multimodality natural medicine program on carotid atherosclerosis in older subjects: a pilot trial of Maharishi Vedic Medicine. American Journal of Cardiology 2002 89(8):952-958 The practice of the TM technique reduced carotid artery artherosclerosis compared to control groups who practiced progressive muscle relaxation.

Health | Physiological CPVol5 Pg2970 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Comparing Techniques Unique State of Rest; | 1984

Gallois P. Modifications neurophysiologiques et respiratoires lors de la pratique des techniques de relaxation. L’Encephale 1984 10:139-144 The Transcendental Meditation technique was uniquely effective, as compared to other forms of relaxation, in producing a physiological state of restful alertness.

Health | Physiological CPVol 5 Pg2977 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Restful Alertness Stabilized | 1984

Garnier D, Cazabat A, Thébault P, Gauge P. Pulmonary ventilation during the Transcendental Meditation technique: applications in preventive medicine. Est-Médicine 1984 4(76):867-870 Oxygen consumption decreased in subjects during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique. TM participants also showed lower levels outside the practice indicating a stabilized state of restful alertness.

Health | Physiological CPVol 5 Pg3017 | EEG | Stress Reduction | RCT | 1989

Gaylord C, Orme-Johnson D, Travis F. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique and progressive muscular relaxation on EEG coherence, stress reactivity, and mental health in black adults. International Journal of Neuroscience 1989 46(1/2):77-86 Participants in the Transcendental Meditation program increased in EEG coherence during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique. Meditators also decreased in neuroticism and anxiety and increased in mental health over the one-year study period.

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg3742 | Metabolic, Biochemical | Aging; Younger Biological Age | 1992

Glaser JL, Brind JL, Vogelman JH, Eisner MJ, Dillbeck MC, Wallace RK, Orenteich N. Elevated serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) and TM-Sidhi programs. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1992 15(4):327-341 Compared to controls, middle aged and older individuals practicing the TM technique have been found to maintain higher levels of DHEA-s a hormone that declines steadily throughout adult life. Low levels of DHEA-s have been linked to a variety of diseases and with increased mortality. On average levels of DHEA-s in people practicing the TM technique were comparable to levels of non-meditators who were 5 to 10 years younger – a difference that could not be explained by variations in diet, weight, or exercise habits. Indications of Younger Biological Age: Increased DHEA-S Levels in Female and Older Male Practitioners of the TM and TM-Sidhi Program. Studies show DHEA-S acts as a mood elevator (anti-depressive).

Health | Review CPVol 2 Pg1238 | Health | Health Benefits | 1978

Gräf D. Die Technik der Transzendentalen Meditation und ihre Wirkungen auf die Gesundheit.Erfahrungsheilkunde 1978 27(3):99-102 The benefits of the Transcendental Meditation technique for physiological functioning and their importance for health are reviewed.

Health | Physiological | Health | Responsibility for One’s Own Health | 1978

Gräf D, Pfisterer G. Der Nutzen der Technik der Transzendentalen Meditation für die ärztliche Praxis.Erfahrungsheilkunde 1978 27(9):594-596 The Transcendental Meditation technique improves physiological and psychological functioning and enhances the individual’s sense of responsibility for his own health. The self-sufficient nature of the technique is especially welcomed by those who are concerned about dependence on both medication and the therapist. Acute crises happen less frequently and are less serious; the necessity for calling a doctor occurs strikingly less often.

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg3909 | Productivity and Quality of Life | Decreased Insomnia, Decreased Cigarettes, Increased Health of Industrial Workers | 1990

Haratani T, Hemmi T. Effects of Transcendental Meditation on health behavior of industrial workers.Japanese Journal of Public Health 1990 37:729 Industrial workers who learned the Transcendental Meditation program, in contrast to control employees, showed improved sleep quality, and decreased cigarette consumption. This study was conducted to assess the effect of the Transcendental Meditation program on worker’s health and behavior. Surveys were conducted before and after the introduction of the TM program. 427 TM participants and 308 controls who did not begin the practice in terms of health and behavior. The group who learned the TM program showed reduced time to fall asleep, less awakening during sleep, decrease in habitual smoking and fewer cigarettes smoked.

Health | Physiological CPVol 2 Pg 845 | EEG | Increased Satisfaction | 1977

Hebert JR, Lehmann D. Theta bursts: an EEG pattern in normal subjects practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 1977 42(3):397-405 Frontally dominant theta bursts were found in subjects practicing the TM technique. These were seen to be different than theta in sleep or pathological states, and may be associated with the experience of satisfaction.

Health | Physiological | EEG | TC Unique State of Restful Alertness TM Compared to Eyes-Closed Rest | 2005

Hebert JR, Lehmann D, Tan G, Travis FT, Arenander A. Enhanced EEG alpha time-domain phase synchrony during Transcendental Meditation: implications for cortical integration theory. Signal Processing 2005 85(11):2213-2232 Information transfer and integration in the brain that leads to high-level cognitive processes requires neuronal coordination. High phase synchronization (zero-lag) in fast frequencies is implicated in integrating sensory events. Alpha EEG activity, long regarded as a passive “idling” frequency, is now being implicated in this integrative function. As an example, in brain pathology decreased alpha phase synchrony is correlated with a decline in cognitive function. Transcendental Meditation (TM) provides an interesting starting point to study neuronal coordination because the “transcending experience is a baseline state of consciousness, a condition of restful alertness without cognitive activity. Previous work on TM, reported to increase numerous indices of mind-body health, has been shown to increase neural coherence in the alpha band. In this study 15 subjects practicing the TM technique were investigated for changes in alpha phase synchrony. A time-domain method was used to measure milli second phase shifts in 19 electrodes in long-term practitioners of TM in two conditions: eyes-closed resting and meditation. Significant reductions in millisecond phase lag were found during the meditation condition as compared to the eyes-closed resting condition in 30 of 49 long-range electrode pairings between frontal and occipito-parietal areas. Under the same conditions, twelve control subjects without meditation experience showed no change in alpha phase synchrony over the same time period. It is proposed that enhanced phase synchrony in the alpha frequency during meditation may improve functional integration and may have implications for performance and mind-body health. A short proposal for a phase synchrony model of consciousness is included.

Health | Physiological | Health Care Utilization | Reduction in Health Care Costs | 2011

Herron R. Changes in physician costs among high cost Transcendental Meditation practitioners compared with high cost non-practitioners over 5 years. American Journal of Health Promotion, 2011 26 (1):56-60. This study found that medical expenditures of high cost people decreased 28% over five years of practicing the Transcendental Meditation program (TM) compared to no significant change in matched high cost controls (Non-TM). Both groups received the usual medical care. Before starting meditation, the yearly rate of increase in payments to physicians between groups was not significantly different. After commencing meditation, the TM group’s mean payments declined $44.93 annually (p < .004), whereas the NT comparison group’s payments exhibited nonsignificant changes. After 1 year, the TM group decreased 11%, and after 5 years their cumulative reduction was 28% (p < .001). The results suggest the intervention may be an effective method for reducing physician costs.

Health | Physiological | Health Care Utilization | Reduction in Health Care Costs for the Elderly | 2005

Herron RE, Cavanaugh KL. Can the Transcendental Meditation program reduce the medical expenditures of older people? A longitudinal cost-reduction study in Canada. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):415-442 This study examined whether a method for enhancing psychological and physiological balance and health, the Transcendental Meditation Technique (TM), can reduce medical expenditures in people over 65 years old. Inflation adjusted payments to physicians for treating 163 TM practitioners were compared with those of 163 control participants matched for age, sex, and median pre-intervention payments. During the pre-meditation period, mean changes in payments, differed non-significantly between groups (p=.27). After learning the TM technique, the mean annual change in payments for the TM practitioners was significantly lower than for controls (p=.001). The TM group’s five year cumulative reduction relative to controls was 70%.

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg3920 | Health Care Utilization | Reduction in Health Care Costs | 1996

Herron RE, Hillis SL, Mandarino JV, Orme-Johnson DW, Walton KG. The impact of the Transcendental Meditation program on government payments to physicians in Quebec. American Journal of Health Promotion 1996 10(3):208-216 Decreased Payments for Physicians Services. A study using government statistics in Quebec analyzed the medical expenses of 677 people practicing the TM program for three years before and up to severn years after learning the technique. Monthly data on payments to physicians for treatment under the provincial health insurance scheme were adjusted to account for aging, inflation, and other influences, using normative data provided by the Quebec government. After commencing the TM technique, real expenses declined 5 to 7 percent annually over the seven year follow-up period.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1905 | Motor & Perceptual | Increased Visual Choice Reaction Time | 1978

Holt WR, Caruso JL, Riley JB. Transcendental Meditation vs pseudo-meditation on visual choice reaction time. Perceptual and Motor Skills 1978 46(3):726 Subjects practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique showed greater improvement in visual choice reaction time than subjects practicing either a pseudo-meditation technique or merely resting,

Health | Physiological | Metabolic & Biochemical | Improved Hormonal Functioning | 1998

Infante JR, Peran F, Martinez M, Roldan A, Poyatos R, Ruiz C, Samaniego F, Garrido F. ACTH and beta-endorphin in Transcendental Meditation. Physiology and Behavior 1998 64(3):311-315  The authors have evaluated the effect of Transcendental Meditation (TM) on the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenal axis diurnal rhythms through the determination of hormone levels. The fact that the hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis are modified with regular practice of TM reinforces the hypothesis that the effect of the technique focuses upon the upper neural structures. The authors believe that the results coincide with previous papers which consider that changes in lack of stress response in TM practitioners may be due to a change in neural regulation and that this relaxation technique produces changes in pituitary hormone secretion by enhancing hypothalamic-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic tone. In conclusion, from the results obtained for the different parameters studied, it may be considered that the use of TM had a significant effect on the neuroendocrine axis of subjects belonging to the experimental group. This effect is manifest in the different circulating levels of the hormones analyzed, as well as in modifications of the daily secretion pattern. TM practitioners with similar anxiety levels to the control group show a different daytime secretion pattern in the pituitary hormones which could be due to possible modulation of the hypothalamo – hypophyseal axis. Be- cause cortisol levels have a normal pattern in the TM group, these results may be due to a change in feedback sensitivity caused by this mental technique. In future studies, the authors shall try to establish the exact evolution of these hormones and the possible existence of peaks of secretion which are different to those established as the normal pattern, by measuring the daytime rhythm of cortisol and ACTH at hourly intervals.

Health | Physiological | Metabolic & Biochemical | Improved Hormonal Functioning | 2010

Infante JR, Peran F, Rayo JI, Serrano J, Dominguez ML, Garcia L, Duran C, Sanchez R, Roldan A. Daytime hormonal rhythms in practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation-Sidhi program.Biomedical Research 2010 21:161-166 The aim of the study was to evaluate the daytime rhythm of hormones in subjects who are practitioners of the advanced meditation technique TM-Sidhi. The study group consisted of five subjects, two women and three men, with at least two years of experience in the practice of the technique. Blood samples were taken at hourly intervals from 09:00h to 21:00h. The subjects practiced meditation for one hour between 12:00h and 13:00h. Cortisol and ACTH levels were measured using radioimmunoassay methods, whereas catecholamines concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Cortisol showed a normal rhythm, with values significantly higher in the morning than in the afternoon (p=0.003, Kruskal-Wallis test), with a non significant decline in the levels during the period of meditation. For ACTH, there were no diurnal variations (p= 0.4), but with elevated levels of the hormone after meditation. Catecholamines showed no significant differences between the morning and afternoon concentrations (p= 0.09 for NE, p= 0.08 for E). After the TM-Sidhi program their values declined, reaching the minimum level at 14:00h. The present study found patterns of the daytime secretion of ACTH and catecholamines in practitioners of the TM-Sidhi technique that were different from those normally described. After the period of meditation, there was an increase in the levels of the hypophyseal hormone to reach its maximum daytime concentration. This was associated with decreased plasma catecholamines levels. The technique of meditation seems to have a significant effect on the sympathetic-adrenal medullary system and the neuroendocrine axis. http://www.biomedres.org/journal/pdf/364.pdf

Health | Physiological | Metabolic & Biochemical | Improved Hormonal Functioning | 2001

Infante JR, Torres-Avisbal M, Pinel P, Vallejo JA, Peran F, Gonzalez F, Contreras P, Pacheco C, Roldan A, Latre JM. Catecholamine levels in practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation technique.Physiology and Behavior 2001 72(2):141-146 Based on the results obtained, it can be considered that the regular practice of TM has a significant effect on the sympathetic -adrenal medulla system. A low hormonal response to daily stress caused by sympathetic tone regulation through regular TM could explain our results, as well as the physiological and other effects related to the field of health described in those who practice meditation. With the aim of evaluating the sympathetic-adrenal medulla system in subjects practicing transcendental meditation (TM), their plasma catecholamine levels were determined at two different times of day. The study group consisted of 19 subjects who regularly practice either the TM or Sidhi -TM techniques, with a control group made up of 16 healthy subjects who had not previously used any relaxation technique. Catecholamine plasma levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography, at 0900 and 2000 h Morning and evening norepinephrine (NE) levels and morning epinephrine (E) levels were significantly lower in the TM group than in the control subjects (morning NE levels, pg/ml, mean plus or minus S.E.: TM group 136.6 plus or minus 13.0, control 236.8 plus or minus 21.0, P – 0001; evening NE levels: TM group 119.7 plus or minus 10.8, control 175.6 plus or minus 17.4, P=.009;morning E levels, pg/ml: TM group 140.2 plus or minus 10.6,control 196.7 plus or minus 23.8, P= .019). No differences were recorded for evening E levels and dopamine (DA) levels. No significant differences were found for catecholamine levels measured at different times of day in the TM group, demonstrating a lack of daily hormonal rhythm. Anxiety levels were similar in both groups.

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg3795 | EEG | Restful Alertness Stabilized | 1996

Istratov EN, Lyubimov NN, Orlova TV. Dynamic features of the modified state of consciousness during Transcendental Meditation. Biulleten Eksperimental Biologii Meditsiny 1996 121:128-130 This study found EEG indications of restful alertness during and after the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique as measured by increased stability of alpha activity, increased beta power, and reduced slow wave delta and theta power during the practice of the TM technique and the persistence of these EEG spectral distribution changes immediately after the practice.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Decreased Congestive Heart Failure Symptoms | RCT | 2007

Jayadevappa R, Johnson JC, Bloom BS, Nidich S, Desai S, Chhatre S, Razian D, Schneider RH. Effectiveness of Transcendental Meditation on functional capacity and quality of life of African Americans with congestive heart failure: a randomized control study. Ethnicity and Disease 2007 17:72-77 This 6 month randomized pilot trial of 23 African American patients recently hospitalized for chronic heart failure found that the TM group significantly improved on functional capacity on a 6-minute walk test compared with control subjects who received only health education. TM subjects also had reduced depression and only three hospitalizations compared to six for controls.

Health | Review CPVol 5 Pg3322 | Health | Improved Individual and Collective Health Reduce Health Care Costs | 1988

Jedrczak A, Miller D, Antoniou M. Transcendental Meditation and health: an overview of experimental research and clinical experience. Health Promotion 1988 2(4):369-376 The authors review the large body of research literature indicating improved individual and collective health through The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program, and propose that this program be applied on a large scale to improve public health and reduce health care costs.

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg3737 | Cardiovascular | Increased Cerebral Blood Flow | 1996

Jevning R, Anand R, Beidebach M, Fernando G. Effects on regional cerebral blood flow of Transcendental Meditation. Physiology and Behavior 1996 59(3):399-402  Practicing TM results in: Increased Relative Blood Flow to the Brain in Frontal and Occipital Regions; Decreased Cerebrovascular Resistance Correlated with Increased Relative Cerebral Blood Flow; Increased Galvanic Skin Resistance; Increased Galvanic Skin Resistance Correlated with Increased Relative Cerebral Blood Flow.

Health | Physiological CPVol 2 Pg 815 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Pain Relieving and Anti-Depressive | 1977

Jevning R, Pirkle H, Wilson AF. Behavioral alteration of plasma phenylalanine concentration.Physiology and Behavior 1977 19(5):611-614 Plasma phenylalanine concentration was found to increase during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique, while no change was seen during ordinary relaxation. Phenylalanine is reputed to have pain relieving and an anti-depressive effects.

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg4173 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Integrated Physiological Response | 1992

Jevning R, Wallace RK, Beidebach M. The physiology of meditation: a review. A wakeful hypometabolic integrated response. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 1992 16(3):415-424The authors propose that practice of the Transcendental Meditation Technique creates an integrated physiological response with peripheral circulatory and metabolic changes subserving increased central nervous activity, and review data from previous research on physiological changes associated with the Transcendental Meditation Program

Health | Physiological CPVol 5 Pg2999 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Increased Efficiency in Neuroendocrine Regulation | 1987

Jevning R, Wells I, Wilson AF, Guich S. Plasma thyroid hormones, thyroid stimulating hormone, and insulin during acute hypometabolic state in man. Physiology and Behavior 1987 40(5):603-606 The Transcendental Meditation practice was found to have both short- and long term effects on thyroid function, suggesting more efficient neuroendocrine regulation.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3Pg 1507 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Reduced Stress | 1978

Jevning R, Wilson AF, Davidson JM. Adrenocortical activity during meditation. Hormones and Behavior 1978 10(1):54-60 The practice of the TM technique was associated with an acute decline in adrenocortical activity. Since increased adrenocortical hormone levels are well-established correlates of both acute and chronic stress, the decline seen to result from the practice of Transcendental Meditation has important implications for counteracting stress.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1633 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Unique State of Deep Rest | 1982

Jevning R, Wilson AF, O’Halloran JP. Muscle and skin blood flow and metabolism during states of decreased activation. Physiology and Behavior 1982 29(2):343-348 Forearm oxygen consumption declined markedly during the Transcendental Meditation technique due to a decreased rate of tissue oxygen extraction. These findings indicate reduced metabolism in muscle tissue and reflect a unique state of deep rest.

Health | Physiological CPVol 4 Pg2224 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Unique State of Deep Rest | 1983

Jevning R, Wilson AF, O’Halloran JP, Walsh RN. Forearm blood flow and metabolism during stylized and unstylized states of decreased activation. American Journal of Physiology 1983 245 (Regulatory Integrative Comp. Physiol.14):R110-R116 Forearm oxygen consumption declined markedly during the Transcendental Meditation technique due to a decreased rate of tissue oxygen extraction. These findings indicate reduced metabolism in muscle and reflect a unique state of deep rest.

Health | Physiological CPVol 5 Pg2988 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Unique State of Rest Difference Between TM and Rest | 1985

Jevning R, Wilson AF, Pirkle H, Guich S, Walsh RN. Modulation of red cell metabolism by states of decreased activation: comparison between states. Physiology and Behavior 1985 35(5):679-682 This study showed lower aerobic lactate generation on the cellular level during the practice of the TM technique.

Health | Physiological CPVol 4 Pg2230 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Unique State of Deep Rest | 1983

Jevning R, Wilson AF, Pirkle H, O’Halloran JP, Walsh RN. Metabolic control in a state of decreased activation: modulation of red cell metabolism. American Journal of Physiology 1983 245 (Cell Physiol.14):C457-C461 Red blood cells taken from subjects during the Transcendental Meditation technique were found to show a decrease in lactate production compared to red cells taken during a control period. This finding indicates a marked reduction in red cell glucose metabolism during the Transcendental Meditation technique which is not observed in other physiological states and which is apparently mediated by a unique mechanism.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1512 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Reduced Stress | 1978

Jevning R, Wilson AF, Smith WR. The Transcendental Meditation technique, adrenocortical activity, and implications for stress. Experientia 1978 34(5):618-619 The practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique was associated with an acute decline in adrenocortical activity. Since increased adrenocortical hormone levels are well-established correlates of both acute and chronic stress, the decline seen to result from the practice of Transcendental Meditation has important implications for counteracting stress.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Increase in Cerebral Blood Flow Different from Eyes-Closed Rest | 1978

Jevning R, Wilson AF, Smith WR, Morton ME. Redistribution of blood flow in acute hypometabolic behavior. American Journal of Physiology 1978 235(1):R89-R92 During the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique, hepatic and renal blood flow were found to decrease, while cardiac output increased, suggesting that a large increase of cerebral blood flow occurs during the Transcendental Meditation technique. There were significant statistical differences when these parameters were compared to eyes closed rest controls.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1514 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Increased Relaxation | 1978

Jevning R, Wilson AF, VanderLaan EF. Plasma prolactin and growth hormone during meditation.Psychosomatic Medicine 1978 40(4):329-333 Plasma prolactin was found to increase in both short- and long-term practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation technique either towards the end or shortly after the practice. Prolactin is an indicator of relaxation and promotes neurogenesis. (production of neurons (brain cells). Eyes closed rest did not produce an increase in prolactin. The increase in prolactin found during sleep is found to immediately wane on awakening. The persistence of the TM-associated prolactin increase suggests that the events involved are different from those activated in sleep.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1652 | EEG | Increased Relaxation | 1978

Kemmerling T. Wirkung der Transzendentalen Meditation auf den Muskeltonus. Psychopathometrie1978 4:437-438 Subjects practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique showed a greater degree of muscular relaxation as measured by electromyography, than a control group who relaxed.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | 2002

King MS, Carr T, D’Cruz C. Transcendental meditation, hypertension and heart disease. Australian Family Physician 2002 31:164-168 This study supports previous and subsequent research showing, clinically important reductions in blood pressure and that sustained blood pressure changes of the magnitude produced by TM would be associated with substantially decreased risk of heart attack and stroke, the leading cause of mortality worldwide.

Health | Psychological CPVol3 Pg2049 | Development of Personality | Reduction in Nervousness, Depression, Increased Self-Confidence | 1979

Kniffki C. Transzendentale Meditation und Autogenes Training—ein Vergleich. In series Geist und Psyche. Munich: Kindler Verlag, 1979 The practice of the TM technique was found to result in cumulative benefits for psychological health. By comparison, the effects of Autogenic Training, were, in general, less substantial and not sustained. Reduction in Nervousness, Depression, Increased Self-Confidence

Health | Physiological | Health | Reduced Stress | 1995

Knight S. Use of Transcendental Meditation to relieve stress and promote health. British Journal of Nursing 1995 4(6):315-318 This study has identified benefits of the Transcendental Meditation technique in improving quality of life and mental health in patients with chronic disorders.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | 2001

Kondwani KA, Lollis CM. Is there a role for stress management in reducing hypertension in African Americans? Ethnicity and Disease 2001 11:788-792  Increased left ventricle mass or left ventricle hypertrophy are indicators of hypertensive disease and a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality (Levy, Garrison, Savage, Kannel & Castelli, 1990) In a pilot study of TM and left ventricle mass, African Americans with stage 1 hypertension on average (N=34, M age = 50.7 years + or – 8.7 years were randomized to a TM group or a health education group (HE) whose members learned how to reduce their blood pressure with life sytle modifications of diet and exercise. After one year both groups showed a significant within group reduction in left ventricle mass (TM=10.3% and HE 14.5%) with no significant between group difference.

Health | Review CPVol 2 Pg1277 | Health | Reduced Stress & Psychosomatic Complaints | 1980

Kroener D. Transzendentale Meditation und ihre Indikationen für den niedergelassenen Arzt.Biologische Medizin 1980 9(3):122-127 The benefits of the TM program in medical practice are described with particular reference to the alleviation of stress-related illness and psychosomatic complaints.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1584 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Unique State of Restful Alertness | 1979

Lang R, Dehof K, Meurer KA, Kaufmann W. Sympathetic activity and Transcendental Meditation.Journal of Neural Transmission 1979 44(1/2):117-135 The findings of this study indicate that the Transcendental Meditation technique gives rise to a unique physiological state which involves the activity of aspects of both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system, and that these effects become most clearly evident in more experienced meditators. The results contribute to an understanding of the coexistence of very deep rest with enhanced alertness during the Transcendental Meditation technique.

Health | Physiological CPVol 1 Pg 187 | EEG | Increased Coherence, Orderliness of Brain Functioning TM Different from Drowsiness, Sleep and Eyes Close Rest | 1976

Levine PH. The coherence spectral array (COSPAR) and its application to the spatial ordering of the EEG. Proceedings of the San Diego Biomedical Symposium 1976 15:237-247 Increases in EEG coherence specific to the Transcendental Meditation technique, especially in the alpha and theta bands, indicated increased ordering of bran wave activity during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique. Central and frontal EEGs from 28 subjects spanning an array of experience with the TM technique from 0-15 years were analyzed by means of the coherence spectral array. In most cases, increases in coherence specific to the TM Technique particularly in the alpha and theta bands were observed relative to eyes closed control periods. Sleep studies showed that drowsiness and loss of consciousness were accompanied by a decreases n coherence. Thus, the present findings indicate that the neurological state reached during the Transcendental Meditation technique differs from drowsiness, sleep onset and simple eyes-closed relaxation, the difference being a higher degree of long range ordering in the EEG.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1861 | Health | Chronic Disorders Health Promotion “People Oriented” | 1982

Lovell-Smith HD. Transcendental Meditation—treating the patient as well as the disease. New ZealandFamily Physician 1982 9:62-65 The TM program is discussed as a scientifically validated method with a wide range of benefits for the promotion of positive health. The discussion is illustrated by a case report. This study has identified benefits of the Transcendental Meditation technique in improving quality of life and mental health in patients with chronic disorders.

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg3898 | Health | Reduced Migraine Headaches | 1985

Lovell-Smith HD. Transcendental Meditation and three cases of migraine. New Zealand Medical Journal 1985 98:443-445 Reduced Frequency and Severity of Migraine Headaches This study has identified benefits of the Transcendental Meditation technique in improving quality of life and mental health in patients with chronic disorders.

Health | Physiological | Metabolic & Biochemical | Stress Reduction | RCT | 1997

MacLean CR, Walton KG, Wenneberg SR, Levitsky DK, Mandarino JV, Waziri R, Hillis SL, Schneider RH. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on adaptive mechanisms: changes in hormone levels and responses to stress after four months of practice. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1997 22(4):277-295 More Adaptive Biochemical Response to Stress: Decreased Baseline Cortisol and Decreased Overall Cortisol During Stress Session; Enhanced Cortisol Response During Stressful Challenge with Rapid Return to Baseline; Decreased Plasma Serotonin Relative to Controls for Baseline, Average and Response to Stress. (In contrast to whole body serotonin metabolism, low plasma serotonin indicates decreased stress and decreased risk of High Blood Pressure. Low Baseline Cortisol and Enhanced Cortisol Response to stress is a more stable and adaptive physiological profile.

Health | Physiological | Metabolic & Biochemical | Increased Electrolytes | 1974

McCuaig LW. Salivary electrolytes, proteins and pH during Transcendental Meditation. Experientia1974 30(9):988-989 During the practice of the TM technique salivary electrolytes and protein increased in concentration while salivary pH decreased. Salivary pH significantly increased 10 minutes after the practice of the TM technique.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1672 | EEG | Improved Processing of Auditory Information | 1980

McEvoy TM, Frumkln LR, Harkins SW. Effects of meditation on brainstem auditory evoked potentials.International Journal of Neuroscience 1980 10(2/3):165-170 The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program was found to result in changes in brainstem auditory evoked potentials, suggestive of improved processing of auditory information.

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg3751 | Metabolic, Biochemical | Reduced Stress | 1990

Mills PJ, Schneider RH, Hill D, Walton K, Wallace RK. Beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity in subjects practicing Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 1990 34(1):29-33 This study found that those who practice the Transcendental Meditation technique show reduced sensitivity to stress hormones.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1789 | Physiological Efficiency & Stability | Reduced Distress Associated with Pain | 1981

Mills WW, Farrow JT. The Transcendental Meditation technique and acute experimental pain.Psychosomatic Medicine 1981 43(2):157-164 Practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation technique showed less distress associated with the experience of acute experimental pain than non-meditating control subjects. This finding is discussed in relation to developing higher states of consciousness. The reports of the TM group on the intensity of perceived pain were not significantly different from those of the control group, but the TM group’s reports indicated significantly less distress associated with the experience of acute experimental pain than the control group.

Health | Physiological | Health | Improvement in Chronic Disease Natural Approach | 2000

Nader T, Rothenberg S, Averbach R, Charles B, Fields JZ, Schneider RH. Improvements in chronic diseases with a comprehensive natural medicine approach: a review and case series. Behavioral Medicine 2000 26(1):34-46 Approximately 40% of the US population report using complementary and alternative medicine, including Maharishi Vedic Medicine (MVM), a traditional, comprehensive system of natural medicine, for relief from chronic and other disorders. Although many reports suggest health benefits from individual MVM techniques, reports on integrated holistic approaches are rare. This case series, designed to investigate the effectiveness of an integrated, multi-modality MVM program in an ideal clinical setting, describes the outcomes in four patients: one with sarcoidosis; one with Parkinson’s disease; a third with renal hypertension; and a fourth with diabetes/essential hypertension/anxiety disorder. Standard symptom report and objective markers of disease were evaluated before, during and after the treatment period. Results suggested substantial improvements as indicated by reductions in major signs, symptoms, and use of conventional medications in the four patients during the 3-week in-residence treatment phase and continuing through the home follow-up program.

Health | Physiological | Health | Improved Quality of Life for Breast Cancer Patients | RCT | 2009

Nidich SI, Fields JZ, Rainforth MV, Pomerantz R, Cella D, Kristeller J, Salerno JW, Schneider RH. A randomized controlled trial of the effects of Transcendental Meditation on quality of life in older breast cancer patients. Integrative Cancer Therapies 2009 8(3):228-234 A randomized controlled trial examined effects of the TM technique on quality of life and mental well-being in 130 women with breast cancer (stages II to IV, average age 63.8 years). The study was supported by grants from the US National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine and the Retirement Research Foundation of Chicago. Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy in women in Britain and USA, affecting eleven per cent of UK women, especially after age 50. Impairment of quality of life and psychological health affect both newly diagnosed and long-term survivors. Psychosocial health affect both newly diagnosed and long-term survivors. Psychosocial stress has been implicated as contributing to the onset, progression, and mortality from this disease. Patients were randomly assigned to learn TM or act as controls, following stratification to ensure that groups were well matched for age, stage of cancer, and timing of metastases in stage IV patients (spread of cancer to distant sites). All patients received standard medical care. Well-documented measures, including Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B) and Short-Form 36 mental health scale, were administered 6 monthly over an average 18-month intervention period. Compared to controls, subjects practicing TM showed improvements in overall quality of life, emotional well-being, social well-being, and mental health.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension College Students | RCT | 2009

Nidich S, Rainforth M, Haaga D, Hagelin J, Salerno J, Travis F, Tanner M, Gaylord-King C, Grosswald S, Schneider R. A randomized controlled trial on effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on blood pressure, psychological distress, and coping in young adults. American Journal of Hypertension 2009 22(12):1326-1331 A three month randomized control trial of 298 university students including 159 subjects at risk for hypertension, found significant systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure decreases for the at risk TM group of 5.0/2.8 mmHg compared with increases of 1.3/1.2 Hg for high risk control subjects. The TM group also showed significant improvements compared with control subjects in total psychological distress, anxiety, depression, anger/hostility and coping. Moreover reductions in psychological distress and coping significantly correlated with reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1731 | EEG | Improved Moral Reasoning | 1983

Nidich SI, Ryncarz RA, Abrams AI, Orme-Johnson DW, Wallace RK. Kohlbergian moral perspective responses, EEG coherence, and the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Journal of Moral Education 1983 12(3):166-173 High frontal alpha EEG coherence was associated with a more unified perspective of life, as described by Kohlberg’s Stage 7, in subjects practicing the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. “Stage 7” presupposes a cosmic rather than a universal humanistic orientation.

Health | Physiological CPVol 5 Pg3004 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Increased hormone related to learning, memory | 1985

O’Halloran J, Jevning R, Wilson AF, Skowsky R, Walsh RN, Alexander CH. Hormonal control in a state of decreased activation: potentiation of arginine vasopressin secretion. Physiology and Behavior1985 35(4):591-595 During the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique, there was a dramatic increase in a hormone associated with body fluid balance as well as with learning and memory.

Health | Physiological | Efficiency & Stability | Stress Reduction | 1973

Orme-Johnson DW. Autonomic stability and Transcendental Meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine1973 35(4):341-349 Subjects practicing the TM technique showed greater stability in response to stress both in and out of meditation. Those who practice the Transcendental Meditation Programme show more stability of the autonomic nervous system, as indicated by less frequent spontaneous skin resistance fluctuations (greater time between fluctuations) and showed more rapid physiological recovery (measured by galvanic skin resistance) from the stress of a loud sound. A series of sounds was presented, and after fewer presentations the sound did not cause a stress response among this group.

Health | Physiological CPVol 5 Pg3042 | Health Care Utilization | Reduction in Health Care Costs | 1987

Orme-Johnson DW. Medical care utilization and the Transcendental Meditation program.Psychosomatic Medicine 1987 49(1):493-507 Research from the USA examined health-care utilization over five consecutive years among 2000 people practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique as compared to control groups (from a total sample of 600,000) who were closely comparable with regard to age, gender, occupation, and health insurance terms. Over the five-year period, the Transcendental Meditation participants consistently had fewer than half the number of doctor visits and days in the hospital compared to controls. Of considerable interest was the fact that the Transcendental Meditation group showed relatively little increase in need for health care with increasing age, whereas this trend was clearly seen in controls, as would usually be expected. Hospital admission rates for medical and surgical conditions were 60%-70% lower in the Transcendental Meditation group, with reductions in all 17 disease categories studied. For example, hospital admissions were 87% less for diseases of the heart and blood vessels, 55% less for tumors, 73% less for respiratory disorders, 87% less for neurological problems and 30% less for infections.

Health | Physiological | Health | Reduced Seizures | 2006

Orme-Johnson DW. Evidence that the Transcendental Meditation program prevents or decreases diseases of the nervous system and is specifically beneficial for epilepsy. Medical Hypotheses 2006 67:240-246 Although meditation has been practiced worldwide for centuries, there are no reports that it causes epilepsy or increases the predisposition to it. Medical care utilization statistics and clinical studies indicate that individuals who regularly practice the Transcendental Meditation technique have fewer problems of the nervous system and specifically show decreased symptoms of epilepsy. The frequency, amplitude, areas of activation, and effects of the EEG during the Transcendental Meditation technique are completely different from those of epilepsy. There is no evidence that the Transcendental Meditation technique increases glutamate, which has been associated with epilepsy. With regard to serotonin, the relationship of serotonin to epilepsy has to be viewed in the context of the abnormal brain tissue that causes epilepsy. The serotonin increases that may occur through meditation have been associated with only beneficial effects.

Health | Review Paper | Review of Research | Rebuttal to AHRQ Report on Meditation Research | 2008

Orme-Johnson DW. Commentary on the AHRQ report on research on meditation practices in health.The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2008 14(10):1215-1221The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) report is a major reference point for establishing where the research on meditation stands and where it should go from here. This commentary argues that double blinding, a major component of the report’s evaluation criteria, is not an appropriate control for placebo in meditation research. (Note: Double blinding is not possible in proving cigarettes are bad for your health and double blinding is also not possible with the practice of the TM technique, eg. you always know if you are smoking cigarettes and you always know when you have learned and are practicing the TM technique). A viable alternative is to make the treatment and control groups equivalent on nonspecific therapeutic attention factors and expectation. High quality meditation research must also use qualified instructors, have high compliance levels, insure proficient practice, use state-of-the-art measurement methodology, and make sure control subjects are not inadvertently practicing the same or another form of meditation. None of these determinants of research quality was assessed by the AHRQ report. It is noteworthy that whereas randomized controlled trials have their place in demonstrating clinical efficacy, few if any of the major ideas in the basic or behavioral sciences have come from randomized trails. A wide range of study designs have demonstrated that the traditional goal of meditation, a state of inner silence called “transcendental consciousness,” has unique physiological characteristics with far ranging implications for health, cognition, and behavior. Such studies need to be included in future reviews of meditation techniques. Serious Problems. Serious problems with the report were found by experts in the field who were invited to participate in the study process as peer reviewers. These problems were largely ignored by both the study authors and the study’s sponsors at AHRQ and NCCAM. Reviewers independently found the study had so many methodological flaws and mistakes that they recommended the report be withdrawn until it was corrected. Standard peer review, fact checking, and editors are usually effective at correcting misinformation. Unfortunately, these safeguards were not honored in this report, and misinformation is now positioned to guide public policy on the use of meditation techniques for healthcare. The peer reviewers pointed out that the study’s assessment of research quality was invalid because the study used inappropriate criteria for assessing research quality in the field of behavioral research. It did not heed the advice of reviewers and consultants to use correct criteria. It also omitted research in several important health areas such as tobacco and alcohol use, adolescents at risk for heart disease, and mortality. Moreover, it left out almost 100 studies on the TM technique from its review, although these had been provided to the reviewers in advance.

Health | Physiological | All Areas | Rebuttal of Critique of Meditation Research | 2005

Orme-Johnson, DW, Alexander, CN, Hawkins MA. Critique of the National Research Council’s report on meditation. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):383-414 This paper is a reply to two highly influential reviews of meditation research prepared by a National Research Council (NRC) committee that appeared in two books issued by the National Science Foundation. Three arguments are made (a) While the NRC report concludes that the physiological effects of meditation are not different from ordinary forms of rest, the evidence is strong that one meditation technique in particular, the Transcendental Meditation technique (TM), produces somatic and EEG effects that are indeed distinct from ordinary rest or stages of sleep and dreaming; (b) whereas the NRC report concludes that meditation does not improve the ability to cope with stressors, there is strong consistent evidence that practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique produces greater relaxation outside of meditation outside of meditation, faster recovery from stressors, and reductions in hypertension, biological aging, sickness rates, substance abuse and other manifestations of stress; (c) contrary to the NRC report conclusions, many studies show that practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique enhances human performance on perceptual motor, cognitive, and intellectual tasks. This paper documents the fact that crucial evidence was not used by the NRC for reasons that appear to be both extra-scientific and just poor science. We recommend that future national review committees of technologies originating in non-Western cultures include professionals well informed in the practice, theory and research of the technologies under review.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Cardiac Events | 2011

Orme-Johnson DW, Barnes VA, Schneider RH. Transcendental Meditation for the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease. In: R Allan, J Fisher (eds), Heart & Mind: the Practice of Cardiac Psychology (2nd edition). Washington DC: American Psychological Association 2011 The Transcendental Meditation Technique with a 47% reduction in cardiac events proves as powerful as any new class of heart disease medications entering the market. Statin drugs taken to reduce cholesterol levels only lessen the risks of heart disease by 30 to 40 percent relative to existing treatments. Common blood pressure drugs reduce these outcomes by only 25 to 30 percent.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1687 | EEG | TC TM-Sidhi Increased Alpha Coherence Increased Creativity | 1981

Orme-Johnson DW, Haynes CT. EEG phase coherence, pure consciousness, creativity, and TM-Sidhi experiences. International Journal of Neuroscience 1981 13(4):211-217 Subjects practicing the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program with clear experiences of pure consciousness were found to have higher EEG alpha coherence and higher creativity than subjects with less clear experiences.

Health | Physiological | Health Care Utilization | Reduction in Health Care Costs | 1997

Orme-Johnson DW, Herron R. An innovative approach to reducing medical care utilization and expenditures. American Journal of Managed Care 1997 3(1):135-144 This study showed a 57 per cent reduction in medical expenditure in subjects practicing the TM technique and other aspects of Maharishi’s Vedic Approach to Health (N=693). This study of Blue Cross statistics compared utilization rates for the employees of an academic institution in Iowa practiced the TM technique and other aspects of Maharishi Vedic Approach to Health with 12 other small private colleges in Iowa for 4 years (M aggregated group size=4,148) and with Blue Cross norms (N=600,000). The mean hospital admission rates per 1,000 for cardiovascular disease over the 4 year period were 8.4 for the norm, 8.7 for other colleges, and 0.66 for the TM group, a 92% difference.

Health | Physiological | Health | Pain Relieving and Anti-Anxiety | 2006

Orme-Johnson DW, Schneider RH, Son YD, Nidich S, Cho Z-H. Neuroimaging of meditation’s effect on brain reactivity to pain. NeuroReport 2006 17(12):1359-1363 Twelve healthy long-term meditators who had been practicing Transcendental Meditation for 30 years showed a 40-50% lower brain response to pain compared to 12 healthy controls. Further, when the 12 controls then learned and practiced Transcendental Meditation for 5 months, their brain responses to pain also decreased by a comparable 40-50%. Transcendental Meditation could reduce the brain’s response to pain because neuroimaging and autonomic studies indicate that it produces a physiological state capable of modifying various kinds of pain. In time it reduces trait anxiety, improves stress reactivity and decreases distress from acute pain. According to Orme-Johnson, lead author of this research, “Prior research indicates that Transcendental Meditation creates a more balanced outlook on life and greater equanimity in reacting to stress. This study suggests that this is not just an attitudinal change, but a fundamental change in how the brain functions”.

Health | Psychological | Health | Reduced Stress: Comparing Techniques | 1998

Orme-Johnson DW, Walton KG. All approaches to preventing and reversing the effects of stress are not the same. American Journal of Health Promotion 1998 12(5):297-299 Scientific research now clearly shows that different procedures of meditation and relaxation often have very different effects on specific variables. Such differences should not be unexpected, given the differences between the procedures themselves. Compare, for example, respiration research on procedures that focus on breathing and procedures that ignore it, and stress-level research on procedures that require effort and concentration and procedures that emphasize effortlessness. The error of lumping together all meditation procedures has often led to two opposing mistakes about the significance of the research itself. The first, sometimes made by supporters of the idea of meditation in general, is to conclude that significant results found to be produced by a particular procedure can simply be assumed to follow from other procedures as well. This is unreasonably optimistic. The second is to combine the conflicting research on different procedures, find no consistent results, and conclude that “meditation” (considered generically) has no effects at all. This mistake is in turn unreasonably pessimistic. Scientifically, the proper thing to do is to note that different procedures might well be expected to produce different results with regard to different variables (respiration, stress levels, EEG, etc.) and thus ought to be evaluated individually.Randomized controlled trials have shown that, compared to other forms of meditation, relaxation, and health promotion, the Transcendental Meditation program decreases blood pressure, increases longevity and cognitive flexibility in the elderly, decreases arterial sclerosis, decreases post-traumatic stress syndrome and anxiety, and increases intelligence, creativity, field independence, practical intelligence, and speed of cognitive processing. Meta-analyses are an objective means of drawing conclusions about an entire field of research, including all the studies said to show negative as well as positive results. Meta-analyses have found that the Transcendental Meditation program is superior to ordinary rest; that it is more effective in reducing anxiety than other meditation and relaxation techniques; more effective in increasing self actualization than other meditation and relaxation techniques; and more effective in reducing drug abuse, alcohol abuse, and cigarette use than other standard treatments. All these changes can be seen to result from the state of relaxation and coherence that the Transcendental Meditation program specifically produces.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1850 | Health | Decreased Psychosomatic Complaints Increased Emotional Stability | 1982

Overbeck K-D. Auswirkungen der Technik der Transzendentalen Meditation (TM) auf die psychische und psychosomatische Befindlichkeit. Psychotherapie-Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie1982 32(6):188-192 After four to six months of regular practice of the TM technique subjects showed decreases in psychosomatic complaints, musculoskeletal complaints, oversensitivity and in limitations caused by physical and general ailments when compared to a non-meditating control group. Increases in efficiency and emotional stability were also seen. The improvement in these parameters were associated with the experience of inner harmony during the TM technique.

Health | Psychological CPVol 2 Pg1012 | Intelligence, Learning & Academic Achievement | Improved Right Hemispheric functioning | 1977

Pagano RR, Frumkin LR. The effects of Transcendental Meditation on right hemispheric functioning.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation 1977 2(4):407-415 Experienced meditators showed superior right hemispheric functioning compared to non-meditators and inexperienced meditators.

Health | Physiological | Health Physiological Stability | Metabolic Syndrome | RCT | 2006

Paul-Labrador M, Polk D, Dwyer JH, Velasquez I, Nidich SI, Rainforth M, Schneider RH, Bairey Merz CN. Effects of a randomized controlled trial of Transcendental Meditation on components of the metabolic syndrome in subjects with coronary heart disease. Archives of Internal Medicine 2006 166(11):1218-1224 This 16-week, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 103 coronary heart patients found that the Transcendental Meditation technique improved blood pressure and insulin resistance components of the metabolic syndrome, (associated with many major disorders of modern society including coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension) as well as cardiac autonomic nervous system tone compared with a control group receiving health education. These results suggest that the TM technique may modulate the physiological response to stress and improve coronary heart disease risk factors. Stress hormones such as cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenalin aggravate insulin and glucose levels. Reducing these neurohormones through the Transcendental Meditation technique helps to balance glucose and insulin in the blood. This helps to normalize metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Full Article The American Medical Association was so impressed by the research showing that TM was the only technology documented in medical literature to be able to address all three components of the “metabolic syndrome”, that they issued a press release which resulted in thousands of articles world-wide.

Health | Physiological CP Vol I Pg 335 | Motor & Perceptual | Field Independence | RCT | 1974

Pelletier KR. Influence of Transcendental Meditation upon autokinetic perception. Perceptual and Motor Skills 1974 39(7):1031-1034 Subjects practicing the TM technique showed increased field independence, which reflects improved pattern recognition and increased accuracy of perceptual judgement.

Health | Physiological | EEG | Increased Amplitude of Cortical and Brain Stem Responses to Somatosensory Stimuli | 1993

Petrenko EV, Orlova TV, Lyubimov NN. Cerebral control of afferent somatosensory projections.Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine 1993 116(3):1046-1048. (Translated from Byulleten’ Eksperimental’noi Biologii i Meditsiny 1993 116:229-231) This study reports increased amplitude of cortical and brain stem responses to somatosensory stimuli during the Transcendental Meditation technique in comparison to the control period prior to practice. Investigation into the neuronal mechanisms of TM showed contrasting functional changes in forebrain and spinal cord structures during TM. An increase of spectral power of electrical activity in alpha- and theta-frequency ranges take place in parietal and somatosensory forebrain structures, which reflects an increased activation of these structures. Comparing the data with the literature and analyzing their functional significance, we can conclude that a functional mobilization of a whole spectrum of cerebral descending coordinating influences to the back parts of the brain stem and the spinal cord takes place during TM. Activation of structures playing the central role in intellectual activity, particularly the parietal and frontal cortex, takes place as a result of this highly selective process. In the spinal cord structures, activation of inhibitory elements during TM is followed by inhibition of motor neurons and consequent muscle relaxation.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | Meta | 2007

Rainforth MV, Schneider RH, Nidich SI, Gaylord-King C, Salerno JW, Anderson JW. Stress reduction programs in patients with elevated blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Current Hypertension Reports 2007 9(6):520-528 This meta-analysis of 17 published studies from the medical literature (selected from over 100 published studies for their careful experimental design utilizing randomized controlled trials) reported on the effects of stress reduction techniques on elevated blood pressure in about 1000 subjects total. The treatments employed included simple biofeedback, relaxation-assisted biofeedback, progressive muscle relaxation, stress management training, and the Transcendental Meditation program. The results of statistical analyses showed that none of the first 4 treatment approaches demonstrated statistically significant reductions in elevated blood pressure, while the Transcendental Meditation program showed both significant clinical and statistical reductions in blood pressure. by 5.0/2.8 mmHg. Blood pressure reductions of this magnitude are suggested to result in significant reductions in cardiovascular disease risk. (Staesson et al., 2004) Full Article This meta-analysis evaluated high quality studies, that used active controls, adequate baseline measurement and blinded blood pressure assessment. Meta-analysis was used to calculate blood pressure changes.

Health | Review Paper CP Vol4 Pg2854 | Health | Perfect Health | 1983

Rasmussen SG, Jensen MR, Rodenberg J. Præsentation af en sundhedsmodel. Ugeskrift for Lœger1983 145:1900-1902 This paper presents the Transcendental Meditation program as the means for developing a state of perfect health, thereby bringing fulfillment to the medical sciences.

Health | Psychological | Dev of Personality Productivity Quality of Life | Military Training | 2011

Rees B. Overview of outcome data of potential meditation training for soldier resilience. Military Medicine 2011 176(11):1232-1242

Health | Psychological: | Rehabilitation | PTSD | 2011

Rosenthal JZ, Grosswald S, Ross R, Rosenthal N. Effects of Transcendental Meditation in veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom with posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study. Military Medicine 2011 176(6):626–630 We conducted an uncontrolled pilot study to determine whether transcendental meditation (TM) might be helpful in treating veterans from Operation Enduring Freedom or Operation Iraqi Freedom with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The results of this small, uncontrolled pilot study found that TM may have helped to alleviate symptoms of PTSD and improve quality of life in veterans of OEF/OIF with combat-related PTSD. Based on the weekly compliance checks, instructors also found that TM was easy to perform and well accepted by the subjects. Five veterans were trained in the technique and followed for 12 weeks. All subjects improved on the primary outcome measure, the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (mean change score, 31.4; p = 0.02; df = 4). Significant improvements were also observed for 3 secondary outcome measures: Clinician’s Global Inventory- Severity (mean change score, 1.60; p < 0.04; df = 4), Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (mean change score, −13.00; p < 0.01; df = 4), and the PTSD Checklist—Military Version (mean change score, 24.00; p < 0.02; df = 4). TM may have helped to alleviate symptoms of PTSD and improve quality of life in this small group of veterans. Larger, placebo-controlled studies should be undertaken to further determine the efficacy of TM in this population.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Stress | 2005

Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Salerno J, Rainforth M, Nidich S. Stress reduction in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in high risk underserved populations: a review of controlled research on the Transcendental Meditation program. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):159-180 This is a literature review of the effects of stress reduction with the Transcendental Meditation program on health outcomes related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Evidence is presented, primarily from randomized clinical trials, and meta-analyses to demonstrate that the Transcendental Meditation technique is both an efficacious and cost-effective behavioral stress reduction strategy in reducing CVD risk factors, events, and their underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. This research review suggests that the Transcendental Meditation program may be an optimum candidate for the prevention and treatment of CVD. Moreover, the TM program has been associated with relatively high compliance and cultural acceptability over the long term in a wide diversity of participant populations ranging from low socio-economic status urban African Americans to the elderly.

Health | Physiological | Health | Disease Prevention Aging | 2002

Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Salerno JW, Robinson Jr DK, Fields JZ, Nidich SI. Disease prevention and health promotion in the aging with a traditional system of natural medicine: Maharishi Vedic Medicine. Journal of Aging and Health 2002 14(1):57-78 This review focuses on a comprehensive, sophisticated system of natural medicine that appears to hold promise for prevention of chronic diseases and disabilities, loss of independence, suffering, and health care costs often associated with “usual” aging. Methods: The authors discuss the negative impact of usual aging on our society, with its rapidly growing percentage of elderly, and the challenge of promoting “successful aging.” Emphasis is given to research literature suggesting that Maharishi Vedic Medicine (MVM) is particularly effective in retarding usual aging. Results: Proposed mechanisms for the anti-aging effects of MVM include reductions in physiological and psychological stress and enhancement of homeostatic and self-repair processes. Conclusions: The authors conclude that this set of innovative strategies may help society achieve recommended health objectives for disease prevention and health promotion in older adults and that widespread implementation of this self-empowering, prevention-oriented approach in the elderly is feasible, cost effective, and timely.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | RCT | 2005

Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Staggers F, Orme-Johnson D, Rainforth M, Salerno J, Sheppard W, Castillo-Richmond A, Barnes VA, Nidich SI. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction in African Americans treated for hypertension for over one year. American Journal of Hypertension2005 18(1):88-98 Psychosocial stress has been implicated in the disproportionately higher rates of hypertension among African Americans. This randomized controlled trial compared the effects of two stress reduction techniques and a health education control program on hypertension during a period of 1 year in African-American men and women (N = 150, mean age 49 plus or minus 10 years, mean blood pressure (BP) = 142/95 mm Hg) at an urban community health center.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Decreased Mortality | RCT | 2005

Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Staggers F, Rainforth M, Salerno JW, Hartz A, Arndt S, Barnes VA, Nidich SI. Long-term effects of stress reduction on mortality in persons >/=55 years of age with systemic hypertension. American Journal of Cardiology 2005 95(9):1060-1064 A pooled analysis of the results from two randomized trials of the TM technique in subjects with high blood pressure (Alexander et al., 1989; Schneider et al., 1995) used meta-analysis of individual patient data (N=202) to compute mortality risk. At a mean follow-up of 7.6 + or – 3.5 years, the TM group showed a 30% decrease in the rate of cardiovascular mortality and 23% risk reduction for all cause mortality. The relative risk for cardiovascular disease (risk of the experimental group divided by the control group was .70 (p=.05), and the relative risk of all cause mortality was .77 (p=.04)

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg4239 | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | 1992

Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Wallace RK. In search of an optimal behavioral treatment for hypertension: a review and focus on Transcendental Meditation. In EH Johnson et al. (eds),Personality, Elevated Blood Pressure, and Essential Hypertension (pp.291-312). Washington DC: Hemisphere Publishing, 1992 A review of research on hypertension concluded that the TM technique provides an optimal non-pharmacological treatment and preventative program for high blood pressure, because the technique produces rapid clinically significant blood pressure reductions; is distinctly more effective than other meditation and relaxation procedures; is continued by a high percentage of subjects (in contrast to lower continuation rates for relaxation techniques and the frequent problem of poor compliance with anti-hypertensive drugs); has documented acceptability and effectiveness in a wide range of populations; is effective in reducing high blood pressure in real life environments outside the clinic; is free from harmful side effects or adverse reactions; reduces other cardiovascular risk factors and improves health in a general way.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | 48% Risk Reduction in Mortality, Heart Attacks, Strokes | RCT | 2012

Robert H. Schneider MD, FACC, Clarence E. Grim MD, Maxwell V. Rainforth PhD, Theodore Kotchen MD, Sanford I. Nidich EdD, Carolyn Gaylord-King PhD, John W. Salerno PhD, Jane Morley Kotchen MD, MPH, Charles N. Alexander, PhD Stress Reduction in the Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Transcendental Meditation and Health Education in African Americans. Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, in press  In this trial, the TM program was associated with 48% risk reduction in the composite of mortality, nonfatal MI, and nonfatal stroke in African American men and women with CHD over an average of 5.4 years follow-up. These results were confirmed by independent data analysis. Concurrently, there were improvements in BP and psychosocial distress factors, particularly anger. Regularity of TM practice was associated with increased survival. A selected mind-body intervention, the Transcendental Meditation program, significantly reduced risk for mortality, myocardial infarction and stroke in CHD patients. These changes were associated with lower BP and psychosocial stress factors. Therefore, this practice may be clinically useful in the secondary prevention of CVD. This was a randomized controlled trial of 201 African American men and women with coronary heart disease (CHD) who were randomized to the TM program or health education. The primary end point was the composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Secondary endpoints included the composite of cardiovascular mortality, revascularizations, and cardiovascular hospitalizations; blood pressure (BP); psychosocial stress factors; and lifestyle behaviors.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | RCT | 2001

Schneider RH, Castillo-Richmond A, Alexander CN, Myers H, Kaushik V, Aranguri C, HYPERLINK “http://www.labmeeting.com/papers/author/norris-k” Norris K, HYPERLINK “http://www.labmeeting.com/papers/author/haney-c” Haney C, HYPERLINK “http://www.labmeeting.com/papers/author/rainforth-m” Rainforth M, HYPERLINK “http://www.labmeeting.com/papers/author/calderon-r” Calderon R, HYPERLINK “http://www.labmeeting.com/papers/author/nidich-s” Nidich S. Behavioral treatment of hypertensive heart disease in African Americans: rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial. Behavioral Medicine 2001 27(2):83-95 This study supports previous and subsequent research showing, clinically important reductions in blood pressure and that sustained blood pressure changes of the magnitude produced by TM would be associated with substantially decreased risk of heart attack and stroke, the leading cause of mortality worldwide.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Decreased Mortality | 2001

Schneider RH, Nidich SI, Salerno JW. The Transcendental Meditation program: reducing the risk of heart disease and mortality and improving quality of life in African Americans. Ethnicity and Disease2001 11:159-160 This study supports previous and subsequent research showing, clinically important reductions in blood pressure and that sustained blood pressure changes of the magnitude produced by TM would be associated with substantially decreased risk of heart attack and stroke, the leading cause of mortality worldwide.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Lower Lipid-Peroxides | 1998

Schneider RH, Nidich SI, Salerno JW, Sharma HM, Robinson CE, Nidich RJ, Alexander CN. Lower lipid peroxide levels in practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation program. Psychosomatic Medicine1998 60(1):38-41 The findings of this exploratory study suggest that lower plasma levels of lipid peroxides in a community-dwelling sample of matched older adults are associated with practice of the TM technique. If confirmed, this may provide a mechanism for reduced incidence of coronary heart disease and improvements in other age-related parameters previously reported in TM practitioners in addition to previously suggested mechanisms.

Health | Physiological | Health | Elderly Alternative Medicine | 2003

Schneider RH, Salerno J, Nidich SI. Future trends in use: focus on a traditional system of natural medicine. In N Cherniack, P Cherniack (eds), Alternative Medicine for the Elderly (pp. 73-87). New York: Springer-Verlag, 2003 It has been reported that older patients reasons for seeking CAM therapies include health promotion and disease prevention, disillusionment with conventional therapies with their adverse side effects and high costs, ineffectiveness of conventional medicine to relieve their chronic condition, no emotional or spiritual benefit (i.e lack of holism, treating the whole person – mind, body and spirit – and treating the root causes not just alleviating symptoms. This present overview suggests the potential for a recently revived, traditional and most comprehensive approach to natural medicine to respond to and fulfill the perceived healthcare needs of our ever-rowing elderly population in the US. Given the considerable social, political and economic burden that our older population have now begun to exert on our fragile healthcare system as we enter the new millennium, the implications of establishing and integrating such a promising healthcare system in the US with our current conventional system appears timely, highly pertinent and worthy of widespread implementation.

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg3859 | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | RCT | 1995

Schneider RH, Staggers F, Alexander CN, Sheppard W, Rainforth M, Kondwani K, Smith S, King CG. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans.Hypertension 1995 26(5):820-827 More Ideal Levels of Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Subjects: Reduction of High Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure. The Transcendental Meditation technique produced reductions in systolic and diastolic pressure comparable to those commonly found with anti-hypertensive medication, but without any adverse side effects.  A risk sub-group analysis study of older hypertensive African Americans (55 years and older median age was 66.6 + or – 7.3 years) found that TM practice reduced systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure for both sexes and for subjects high and low on several measures of hypertension risk. This study found that the Transcendental Meditation program reduced both systolic and diastolic blood pressure among all subgroups of hypertensive patients – both men and women and both high and low psychosocial stress subjects in contrast to control subjects. Those participating in the Transcendental Meditation program irrespective of their subgroup on five other risk measures for high blood pressure – obesity, alcohol use, physical inactivity, dietary sodium-potassium intake, and an overall index of all risk factors – also showed reduction of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in comparison to control subjects.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Decreased Congestive Heart Failure Symptoms | RCT | 2006

Schneider RH, Walton KG, Salerno JW, Nidich SI. Cardiovascular disease prevention and health promotion with the Transcendental Meditation program and Maharishi Consciousness-Based Health Care. Ethnicity & Disease 2006 16(3) Supplement 4:15-26 This study examined the effects of conventional health education and the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique on measures of heart failure severity and quality of life in a randomized controlled trial of twenty-three older African American men and women with congestive heart failure (CHF). The results indicate that the use of the TM technique may be effective in improving the quality of life and functional capacity of heart failure patients.

Health | Physiological | Health | Chronic Disorders Improved Quality of Life & Mental Health | 2001

Scurfield L. Transcendental Meditation. Australian Family Physician 2001 30:735-736 This study has identified benefits of the Transcendental Meditation technique in improving quality of life and mental health in patients with chronic disorders.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1823 | Health | Better Periodontal Health | 1979

Seiler G, Seiler V. The effects of Transcendental Meditation on periodontal tissue. Journal of the American Society of Psychosomatic Dentistry and Medicine 1979 26(1):8-12 Evidence that subjects practicing the TM technique have better periodontal health.

Health | Physiological | Health | Maharishi Ayurveda | 1996

Sharma HM, Alexander CN. Maharishi Ayur-Veda research review. Part 1: Transcendental Meditation.Complementary Medicine International 1996 3:21-28. TM has been investigated in conjunction with other aspects of a natural comprehensive health program.- Maharishi’s Vedic Approach to Health.

Health | Physiological | Health | Maharishi Ayurveda | 1998

Sharma HM, Clark C. Contemporary Ayurveda: Medicine and Research in Maharishi Ayur-Veda. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingston, 1998 Ayurveda is one of the world’s oldest and most comprehensive systems of natural medicine, and is particularly useful for addressing the chronic conditions Western medicine finds difficult to treat. This authoritative book provides a comprehensive introduction to Ayurvedic medicine for the practitioner or student. The authors describe the foundations and principles of Maharishi Ayurveda in detail, and drawing on the latest scientific research into its efficacy show what it can offer clinical medicine in the West. Topics covered include pathogenesis and diagnosis, diet and digestion, toxic build-up, purification therapies, the effects of the emotions on thinking and health, and the practical applications of Transcendental Meditation. This updated and expanded second edition describes specific Ayurvedic treatments for a range of common medical conditions, and also contains information on more general Vedic approaches to health and well-being. This book will provide complementary and alternative health practitioners with a solid base on which to build their understanding of Maharishi Ayurveda, and will also be of interest to mainstream health professionals wishing to learn more about the efficacy of this ancient healthcare system.

Health | Physiological | Health | Stress Reduction | 1990

Shaw RM, Dettmar DM. Monitoring behavioral stress control using a craniomandibular index.Australian Dental Journal 1990 35(2):147–151 This study was concerned with the practical value of relaxation training in helping an individual reduce anxiety and its physical manifestations. Twenty-five subjects learned and practiced Transcendental Meditation for a period of three months. Subjects were clinically examined before and after meditation training, and a craniomandibular index (CMI) was used to objectively assess criteria pertaining to mandibular function. Baseline and outcome CMI scores were compared for the group and shown to be significantly different. Deep relaxation achieved through Transcendental Meditation alleviated intramuscular tension and fatigue, promoting balanced, coordinated muscle function.

Health | Physiological | Health | Aging; Younger Biological Age | 1997

Smith D, Dillbeck MC, Sharma HM. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and Transcendental Meditation.Alternative Therapies in Clinical Practice 1997 4(2):35-37 Subjects practicing the TM technique have been found to have lower erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESR) and a higher frequency of zero ESR compared to controls. Increased ESR correlates with aging and is a well established indicator of disease.

Health | Review CPVol 2 Pg1215 | Health | Review of Improved Physiological Functioning | 1977

Stutz E. Transzendentale Meditation in der Medizin. Medizinische Klinik 1977 72(20):905-908 The benefits of the TM technique for physiological functioning are reviewed and their value in clinical medicine is emphasized.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1598 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Less Aggressive Behavior in Patients with Aggressive Behavior; Decreased Seizures in Epileptic Patients, Improved Cognitive Functioning in Mentally Retarded | 1980

Subrahmanyam S, Porkodi K. Neurohumoral correlates of Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Biomedicine 1980 1:73-88 Levels of catecholamine and steroid metabolites, plasma cortisol, and serum cholesterol were found to decrease over a six-month period of the Transcendental Meditation technique. Furthermore, normalization of neurotransmitter metabolite levels, plasma cortisol levels, and EEG features was found to occur as a result of the Transcendental Meditation technique in patients with aggressive behavior, moderate mental retardation, or epilepsy. Considerable clinical improvement was observed in all patients under study: bouts of aggressive behavior were reduced in frequency and severity in aggressive patients; IQ and general cognitive functioning improved in mentally retarded subjects; and the frequency and severity of epileptic seizures were reduced in epileptic patients. It is concluded that the Transcendental Meditation technique has both a beneficial effect on general health and therapeutic value in specific conditions.

Health | Review CPVol 2 Pg1213 | Health | Benefits for Patient & Doctor | 1976

Toane EB. The Transcendental Meditation program. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1976 114(12):1095-1096 Benefits of the TM program for the patient and the doctor.

Health | Physiological | Metabolic & Biochemical | Improved Hormonal Functioning: Well Being | 2000

Tooley GA, Armstrong SM, Norman TR, Sali A. Acute increases in night-time plasma melatonin levels following a period of meditation. Biological Psychology 2000 53(1):69-78 To determine whether a period of meditation could influence melatonin levels, two groups of meditators were tested in a repeated measures design for changes in plasma melatonin levels at midnight. Experienced meditators practicing either TM-Sidhi or another internationally well known form of yoga showed significantly higher plasma melatonin levels in the period immediately following meditation compared with the same period at the same time on a control night. It is concluded that meditation, at least in the two forms studied here, can affect plasma melatonin levels. It remains to be determined whether this is achieved through decreased hepatic metabolism of the hormone or via a direct effect on pineal physiology. Either way, facilitation of higher physiological melatonin levels at appropriate times of day might be on avenue through which the claimed health promoting effects of meditation occur.

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg3823 | EEG | P.C. Junction Point Waking Dreaming and Sleeping | 1994

Travis FT. The junction point model: a field model of waking, sleeping, and dreaming relating dream witnessing, the waking/sleeping transition, and Transcendental Meditation in terms of a common psychophysiologic state. Dreaming 1994 4(2):91-104 Indication of Pure Consciousness at the Transition Between Waking, Sleeping and Dreaming: Increased EEG Theta/Alpha Power. Participants in the Transcendental Meditation Program showed high theta/alpha EEG power, which is characteristic of the experience of Transcendental Consciousness, during night sleep in the transition periods between waking, dreaming and deep sleep.

Health | Physiological | EEG | TC+ Cosmic Consciousness | 2006

Travis FT, Arenander A. Cross-sectional and longitudinal study of effects of Transcendental Meditation practice on inter-hemispheric frontal asymmetry and frontal coherence. International Journal of Neuroscience 2006 116(12):1519-38 Alternation of pure consciousness with activity integrates inner meditation experiences with waking, dreaming and sleeping. This is the first stabilized state of enlightenment, Turyatit Chetana, in the Vedic Tradition. This research extends and confirms recent brainwave findings that distinguished an individual’s sense-of-self along an Object-referral/Self-referral Continuum of self-awareness. Subjects were interviewed and were given tests measuring inner/outer orientation, moral reasoning, anxiety, and personality. Scores on the psychological tests were factor analyzed. The first unrotated PCA component of the test scores yielded a “Consciousness Factor,” analogous to the intelligence “g” factor, which accounted for over half of the variance among groups. Analysis of unstructured interviews of these subjects revealed fundamentally different descriptions of self-awareness. Individuals who described themselves in terms of concrete cognitive and behavioral processes (predominantly Object-referral mode) exhibited lower Consciousness Factor scores, lower frontal EEG coherence, lower alpha and higher gamma power during tasks, and less efficient cortical preparatory responses (contingent negative variation). In contrast, individuals who described themselves in terms of an abstract, independent sense-of-self underlying thought, feeling and action (predominantly Self-referral mode) exhibited higher Consciousness Factor scores, higher frontal coherence, higher alpha and lower gamma power during tasks, and more efficient cortical responses. These data suggest that definable states of brain activity and subjective experiences exist, in addition to waking, sleeping and dreaming, that may be operationally defined by psychological and physiological measures along a continuum of Object-referral/Self-referral Continuum of self-awareness.

Health | Physiological | Athletic Performance | Exercise without Strain | 1996

Travis FT, Blasdell K, Liptak R, Zisman S, Daley K, Douillard J. Invincible Athletics program: aerobic exercise and performance without strain. International Journal of Neuroscience 1996 85(3/4):301-308This study compared physiologic patterns during conventional aerobic exercise to those during Invincible Athletics – a program including the TM technique and emphasizing balance and comfort during exercise to increase strength, endurance and mind-body coordinaton gradually without the negative effects of the stress/recovery cycle. While heart rates were similar during both workouts, during Invincible Athletics (1) perceived comfort tended to be higher and perceived exertion tended to be lower (2) breath rates were significantly lower; (3) respiratory sinus arrhythmia and central-parietal alpha relative power were significantly higher and (4) endurance was significantly longer. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia decreases with physiologic and mental stress. Heightened respiratory sinus arrhythmia and EEG alpha relative power along with subjective reports of greater comfort, less exertion and less observed increased endurance suggest that during Invincible athletics, athletes may be more easily adapting to demands made upon them.

Health | Psychological | Cognitive | ADHD | RCT | 2011

Travis F, Grosswald S, Stixrud W. ADHD, brain functioning, and Transcendental Meditation practice. Mind & Brain, The Journal of Psychiatry 2011 2(1):73-81 This study suggests practicing transcendental meditation (TM) improves brain function and reduces symptoms among students diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg3807 | EEG | Yogic Flying | 1990

Travis FT, Orme-Johnson DW. EEG coherence and power during Yogic Flying: investigating the mechanics of the TM-Sidhi program. International Journal of Neuroscience 1990 54(1/2):1-12Increased EEG Coherence and Power Immediately before the Body Lifted up during TM-Sidhi Yogic Flying. Individuals practicing the Yogic Flying aspect of the Transcendental Meditation TM-Sidhi program in contrast to controls who approximated the physical movements of the practice, showed increased broad band EEG coherence and increased 30-32 Hz power, during the period immediately before the body lifted from the ground.

Health | Physiological | EEG | TC | 2000

Travis FT, Pearson C. Pure consciousness: distinct phenomenological and physiological correlates of ‘Consciousness Itself’. International Journal of Neuroscience 2000 100(1-4):77-89 This paper explores subjective reports and physiological correlates of the experience of “consciousness itself”—self awareness isolated from the processes and objects of experience during meditation practice. Subjectively, this state is characterized by the absence of the very framework (time, space, and body sense) and content (qualities of inner and outer perception) that define waking experiences. Physiologically, this state is distinguished by the presence of apneustic breathing, autonomic orienting at the onset of breath changes, and increases in the frequency of peak EEG power. A model, called the junction point model, is presented that integrates pure consciousness with waking, dreaming, or sleeping. It could provide a structure to generate a coherent program of research to test the full range of consciousness and so enable us to understand what it means to be fully human. This is the state of pure consciousness is the state of Yoga defined by Patanjali in the Yoga sutras as “the settled state of the mind.”

Health | Physiological | EEG | Comparing Techniques | 2010

Travis F, Shear J. Focused attention, open monitoring and automatic self-transcending: categories to organize meditations from Vedic, Buddhist and Chinese traditions. Consciousness and Cognition 2010 19(4):1110-1118 Meditation procedures explore inner subjectivity and the range of conscious content. Meditation procedures in the Automatic Self-transcending category leads to the state of pure consciousness experienced when content is still and wakefulness remains. This paper proposes a third meditation-category—automatic self-transcending— to extend the dichotomy of focused attention and open monitoring proposed by Lutz. Automatic self-transcending includes techniques designed to transcend their own activity. This contrasts with focused attention, which keeps attention focused on an object; and open monitoring, which keeps attention involved in the monitoring process. Each category was assigned EEG bands, based on reported brain patterns during mental tasks, and meditations were categorized based on their reported EEG. Focused attention, characterized by beta/gamma activity, included meditations from Tibetan Buddhist, Buddhist, and Chinese traditions. Open monitoring, characterized by theta activity, included meditations from Buddhist, Chinese, and Vedic traditions. Automatic self-transcending, characterized by alpha1 activity, included meditations from Vedic and Chinese traditions. Between categories, the included meditations differed in focus, subject/object relation, and procedures. These findings shed light on the common mistake of averaging meditations together to determine mechanisms or clinical effects.

Health | Physiological | EEG | Improved Reaction Time | 1998

Travis FT, Tecce JJ. Effects of distracting stimuli on CNV amplitude and reaction time. International Journal of Psychophysiology 1998 31(1):45-50 The present study investigated the reliability of CNV (contingent negative variation), distraction and rebound effects, and their relation with reaction time. Twenty-four subjects were presented three blocks of trials: (1) a control block a fixed fore-period reaction time task consisting of a flash-tone key press sequence; (2) a divided-attention block randomly intermixed trials with and without a short-term memory task (three visually-presented letters) in the S1S2 interval (50% of each) and (3) a second control block. In trials with the short-term memory task, subjects recalled the letters after the key press to the tone. Compared to the control block, CNV amplitudes during trials with letters were significantly smaller and reaction times to S2 were significantly slower (distraction effect). In contrast, CNV amplitudes during trials with no-letters were significantly larger (CNV rebound), but the reaction times were again significantly slower. This dissociation of CNV rebound and reaction time could provide an objective neurophysiological tool to probe attention functions in both normal and clinical populations.

Health | Physiological | EEG | TC | 2001

Travis FT, Tecce JJ, Guttman J. Cortical plasticity, contingent negative variation, and transcendent experiences during practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique. Biological Psychology 2001 55(1):41-55 This study investigated effects of transcendent experiences on contingent negative variation (CNV) amplitude, CNV rebound, and distraction effects. Three groups of age-matched subjects with few (<1 per year), more frequent (10-20 per year), or daily self reported transcendent experiences received 31 simple RT trials (flash (S1)/tone (S2) /button press) followed by 31 divided attention trials – randomly intermixed trials with or without a three letter memory task in the S1-S2 interval). Late CNV amplitudes in the simple trials were smallest in the group with fewest, and largest in the group with most frequent transcendent experiences. Conversely, CNV distraction effect were largest in the group with fewest and smallest in the group with the most frequent transcendent experiences, (the second group’s value was in the middle in each case.) These data suggest cumulative effects of transcendent experiences on cortical preparatory response (heightened CNV amplitude in simple trials) and executive functioning (diminished distraction effects in letter trials).

Health | Physiological | Health: Respiration | TC Respiratory Suspension | 1997

Travis FT, Wallace RK. Autonomic patterns during respiratory suspensions: possible markers of Transcendental Consciousness. Psychophysiology 1997 34(1):39-46 In two experiments, we investigated physiological correlates of transcendental consciousness during Transcendental Meditation technique sessions. In the first, experimenter initiated bells, based on observed physiological patterns marked three phases during a Transcendental Meditation session in 16 individuals. Interrater reliability between participant and experimenter classification of experiences at each bell was quite good. During phases including transcendental consciousness experiences, skin conductance responses and heart rate deceleration occurred at the onset of respiratory suspensions or reductions in breath volume. In the second experiment this autonomic pattern was compared with that during forced breath holding. Phasic autonomic activity was significantly higher at respiratory suspensions onset than at breath holding onset. These easily measured markers could help focus research on the existence and characteristics of transcendental consciousness.

Health | Physiological | EEG | Unique State of Rest Difference Between TM and Rest | RCT | 1999

Travis FT, Wallace RK. Autonomic and EEG patterns during eyes-closed rest and Transcendental Meditation (TM) practice: a basis for a neural model of TM practice. Consciousness and Cognition1999 8(3):302-18 In this single-blind within-subject study, autonomic and EEG variables were compared during 10-min, order-balanced eyes-closed rest and Transcendental Meditation (TM) sessions. TM sessions were distinguished by (1) lower breath rates, (2) lower skin conductance levels, (3) higher respiratory sinus arrhythmia levels, and (4) higher alpha anterior–posterior and frontal EEG coherence. Alpha power was not significantly different between conditions. These results were seen in the first minute and were maintained throughout the 10- min sessions. TM practice appears to (1) lead to a state fundamentally different than eyes-closed rest; (2) result in a cascade of events in the central and autonomic nervous systems, leading to a rapid change in state (within a minute) that was maintained throughout the TM session; and (3) be best distinguished from other conditions through autonomic and EEG alpha coherence patterns rather than alpha power. Two neural networks that may mediate these effects are suggested. The rapid shift in physiological functioning within the first minute might be mediated by a ‘‘neural switch’’ in prefrontal areas inhibiting activity in specific and nonspecific thalamocortical circuits. The resulting ‘‘restfully alert’’ state might be sustained by a basal ganglia–corticothalamic threshold regulation mechanism automatically maintaining lower levels of cortical excitability.

Health | Physiological | Metabolic & Biochemical | Reduction in Free Radicals | 2006

Van Wijk EP, Koch H, Bosman S, Van Wijk R. Anatomical characterization of human ultraweak photon emission in practitioners of Transcendental Meditation and control subjects. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2006 12(1):31-38 Spectral analysis of human ultra-weak photon emission has suggested that ultra-weak emission is probably, at least in part, a reflection of free radical reactions in a living system. The data demonstrates emission intensities that are lower in TM practitioners as compared to control subjects. Data support the hypothesis that free radical reactions can be influenced by TM.

Health | Physiological | Metabolic & Biochemical | Reduction in Free Radicals, Comparing Techniques | 2008

Van Wijk EP, Ludtke R, Van Wijk R. Differential effects of relaxation techniques on ultraweak photon emission. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2008 14(3):241-250 Evidence has accumulated favoring the possible role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases. A few studies suggest a role of long-term meditation in the control of the free-radical metabolism. Attention has recently been drawn to spontaneous ultraweak photon emission (UPE). The present study recorded spontaneous, UPE at multiple anatomic locations of subjects with long-term experience in transcendental meditation (TM) and compared this with a group that practiced other meditation techniques (OMT) and with subjects having no meditation experience. Data demonstrated emission intensities in the TM and OMT groups that were 27% and 17% lower respectively, compared to the control group.

Health | Physiological CPVol 1 Pg 38 | Metabolic Changes | TM distinguished from eyes closed resting, dreaming, sleeping, altered states such as hypnosis and autosuggestion | 1970

Wallace RK. Physiological effects of Transcendental Meditation. Science 1970 167:1751-1754 The Transcendental Meditation technique produces a physiological distinguishable state Oxygen consumption, heart rate, skin resistance, and electroencephalograph measurements were recorded, before, during and after, subjects practiced Transcendental Meditation. There were significant changes between the control period and meditation period in all measurements. During meditation, oxygen consumption and heart rate decreased, skin resistance increased, electroencephalogram showed specific changes in certain frequencies. This was the very first published peer-reviewed study on the Transcendental Meditation technique. These results were the first to distinguish the state produced by Transcendental Meditation from commonly encountered states of consciousness and the first to suggest that it has practical applications.

Health | Physiological CPVol 1 Pg 86 | Metabolic Changes | Holistic effect opposite of fight or flight response | 1972

Wallace RK et al. The physiology of meditation. Scientific American 1972 226:84-90 Physiological changes during the Transcendental Meditation technique indicate a state characterized by quiescence of the sympathetic nervous system.

Health | Psychological CPVol 1Pg 498 | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse | 1972

Wallace RK et al. Decreased drug abuse with Transcendental Meditation: a study of 1,862 subjects. In CJD Zarafonetis (ed.), Drug Abuse: Proceedings of the International Conference (pp.369-376).Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1972 Drug abuse and drug selling were found to decrease among individuals practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique. Also, attitudes were found to change in the direction of discouraging others from abusing drugs. 1,862 who practiced the TM technique for at least 3 months formed the basis of this study. Further, the subjects decreased their consumption of “hard” alcoholic beverages and smoked fewer cigarettes. The magnitude of these changes increased with the length of time the subjects practiced the Transcendental Meditation technique.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1856 | Health | Aging: Younger Biological Age | 1982

Wallace RK, Dillbeck MC, Jacobe E, Harrington B. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program on the aging process. International Journal of Neuroscience 1982 16(1):53-58 This study employed a standardized aging index and found that the biological age of middle-aged individuals practicing TM was significantly younger than both their chronological age and the biological age of non-meditating control subjects. The TM technique and the TM-Sidhi program was found to reverse the aging process. The mean biological age of short-term meditators was found to be 5 years younger and that of long-term meditators 12 years younger, than expected from population norms. A correlation was found between length of time practicing the TM program and younger biological age.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1765 | Physiological Efficiency & Stability | Improved Neurological Efficiency | 1983

Wallace RK, Mills PJ, Orme-Johnson DW, Dillbeck MC, Jacobe E. Modification of the paired H-reflex through the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Experimental Neurology 1983 79(1):77-86 The amplitude of the paired H reflex was facilitated as a result of the TM-Sidh program, indicating improved neurological efficiency.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1867 | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | 1983

Wallace RK, Silver J, Mills PJ, Dillbeck MC, Wagoner DE. Systolic blood pressure and long-term practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program: effects of TM on systolic blood pressure. Psychosomatic Medicine 1983 45(1):41-46 Subjects practicing the TM and TM-Sidhi program were found to have lower systolic blood pressure than norms for the general population. Furthermore long-term meditators were found to have lower systolic blood pressure than short-term meditators.

Health | Physiological CPVol1 Pg 79 | Metabolic Changes | Unique State of Deep Rest along with Alertness | 1971

Wallace RK, Wilson AF et al. A wakeful hypometabolic physiologic state. American Journal of Physiology 1971 221:795-799 Physiological changes occurring during the Transcendental Meditation technique indicate a state of deep relaxation along with mental alertness. decreased O2 consumption, decreased CO2 elimination, decreased respiratory rate, decreased blood lactate, decreased skin resistance, markedly increased EEG, increase of slow alpha waves and occasional theta activity. Physiological changes differ from those during sleep, hypnosis and auto suggestion and characterize a wakeful hypo-metabolic state.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Lower CVD Risk in Post Menopausal Women | 2004

Walton KG, Fields JZ, Levitsky DK, Harris DA, Pugh ND, Schneider RH. Lowering cortisol and CVD risk in postmenopausal women: a pilot study using the Transcendental Meditation program. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2004 1032:211-215 This study showed reduced cardiovascular risk factors and levels of the stress hormone cortisol in post-menopausal women.

Health | Physiological CPVol 5 Pg3003 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Neurotransmitters: Increased Serotonin with Longer TM-Sidhi Program Related to Physical and Mental Health | 1983

Walton KG, Francis D, Lerom M, Tourenne C. Behaviorally-induced alterations in urinary 5-hydroxyindoles. Transactions of the American Society for Neurochemistry 1983 14:199 Length of time spent in the practice of Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program influenced the daily rhythms of the serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA and similar substances. Since serotonin is important in physical and mental health, these changes could mediate some beneficial effects of the program.

Health | Physiological | Health: Prevention | Neuroendocrine Mechanisms: Disease Prevention | 1995

Walton KG, Pugh ND. Stress, steroids, and ‘Ojas’: neuroendocrine mechanisms and current promise of ancient approaches to disease prevention. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 1995 39(1):3-36  TM has been investigated in conjunction with other aspects of a natural comprehensive health program.- Maharishi’s Vedic Approach to Health.

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg3760 | Cardiovascular | Hormonal Balance Reduced Cardiovascular Disease Risk | 1995

Walton KG, Pugh BS, Gelderloos P, MacRae P. Stress reduction and preventing hypertension: preliminary support for a psychoneuroendocrine mechanism. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 1995 1(3):263-283 This study found lower levels of vanillylmandelic acid, indicating reduced turnover of norepinephrine and epinephrine, reflecting reduced sympathetic nervous system activity. This may contribute to reduced contractility or reactivity of the vascular smooth muscle and thus to reduced peripheral resistance leading to reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Other stress related hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, aldosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) change with TM practice, suggesting a mechanism by which the practice may reduce blood volume and normalize blood pressure.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Decreased Mortality & Morbidity | 2004

Walton KG, Schneider RH, Nidich SI. Review of controlled research on the Transcendental Meditation program and cardiovascular disease—risk factors, morbidity and mortality. Cardiology in Review2004 12(5):262-266 This review supports previous and subsequent research showing, clinically important reductions in blood pressure and that sustained blood pressure changes of the magnitude produced by TM would be associated with substantially decreased risk of heart attack and stroke, the leading cause of mortality worldwide.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Hormonal Balance Reduced Cortisol Increased Levles of DHEA-S | 2002

Walton KG, Schneider RH, Nidich SI, Salerno JW, Nordstrom CK, Merz CN. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease. Part 2: effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in treatment and prevention. Behavioral Medicine 2002 28(3):106-123 The TM technique has acute as well as longitudinal effects on reducing baseline cortisol as well as average cortisol across stress sessions. TM practice also increases levels of DHEA-S, an androgen hormone produced in the adrenal glands, which at low levels is a significant predictor of Cardiovascular disease and ischemic heart disease, controlling for other risk factors.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Stress: Clinical and Policy Implications | 2005

Walton KG, Schneider RH, Salerno JW, Nidich SI. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease. Part 3: clinical and policy implications of research on the Transcendental Meditation program.Behavioral Medicine 2005 30(4):173-183 This review supports previous and subsequent research showing, clinically important reductions in blood pressure and that sustained blood pressure changes of the magnitude produced by TM would be associated with substantially decreased risk of heart attack and stroke, the leading cause of mortality worldwide.

Health | Physiological CPVol 2 Pg 824 | EEG | Faster Reaction Time | 1976

Wandhofer A, Kobal G, Plattig K-H. Shortening of latencies of human auditory evoked brain potentials during the Transcendental Meditation technique. Zeitschrift für Elektroenzephalographie und Elektromyographie EEG-EMG 1976 7(2):99-103 Faster bioelectric brain responses to auditory stimuli were found in practitioners of the TM technique as compared to control subjects.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1756 | Physiological Efficiency & Stability | Faster Reaction Time | 1980

Warshal D. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on normal and Jendrassik reflex time.Perceptual and Motor Skills 1980 50(3):1103-1106 Reduction in the reflex latency and reflex motor time were found in subjects following instruction in the Transcendental Meditation technique, indicating improvements in both the neural (latency) and muscular (motor) components of the reflex.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | RCT | 1997

Wenneberg SR, Schneider RH, McLean C, Levitsky DK, Walton KG, Mandarino JV, Salerno JW, Wallace RK, Waziri R. A controlled study of the effects of Transcendental Meditation on cardiovascular reactivity and ambulatory blood pressure. International Journal of Neuroscience 1997 89(1/2):15-28 A randomized longitudinal study of ambulatory blood pressure (monitoring blood pressure during the days activity) found that those who learned the Transcendental Meditation program showed a reduction of mean ambulatory diastolic blood pressure, to lower normal levels without loss of blood pressure reactivity.

Health | Review CPVol 4 Pg2769 | Health | TM Breakthrough in Health and General Medical Practice | 1978

Werner O. Das Programm der Transzendentalen Meditation in der Medizin. Schweizerische Ärztezeitung 1978 39:1722-1726 The author discusses the benefits of the Transcendental Meditation program in general medical practice and shows that it represents a major breakthrough in the field of health. This study has identified benefits of the Transcendental Meditation technique in improving quality of life and mental health in patients with chronic disorders.

Health | Physiological CPVol 5 Pg2993 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Hormonal Balance | 1986

Werner OR, Wallace RK, Charles B, Janssen G, Stryker T, Chalmers RA. Long-term endocrinologic changes in subjects practicing the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Psychosomatic Medicine 1986 48(1/2):59-66 Long term practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program showed increased efficiency and stability of endocrine functioning.

Health | Physiological CPVol 1 Pg 251 | EEG | Increased Alertness | 1975

Williams P, West M. EEG responses to photic stimulation in persons experienced at meditation.Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 1975 39(5):519-522 During an eyes closed resting period separate from the Transcendental Meditation technique, participants in the Transcendental Meditation program showed EEG evidence of greater alertness than that of a control group.

Health | Physiological | Health | Decreased Asthma Symptoms | RCT | 1975

Wilson AF, Honsberger RW, Chiu JT, Novey HS. Transcendental Meditation and asthma. Respiration1975 32(1):74-80 The TM technique was found to improve airway resistance and to reduce severity of symptoms (as evaluated by both patients and physicians.) Twenty one patients kept daily diaries of symptoms and medications and answered questionnaires at the end of the study and six months later. Other measurements included physician evaluation, pulmonary function testing, and galvanic skin resistance. The results indicated that the Transcendental Meditation program is a useful adjunct in treating asthma.

Health | Physiological CPVol 5 Pg2981 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Unique State of Rest Difference Between TM and Rest | 1987

Wilson AF, Jevning R, Guich S. Marked reduction of forearm carbon dioxide production during states of decreased metabolism. Physiology and Behavior 1987 41(4):347-352 This study showed a unique change in forearm metabolism during the Transcendental Meditation technique, indicating deep relaxation

Health | Physiological CPVol 4 Pg2235 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Unique State of Deep Holistic Rest | 1984

Wolkove N, Kreisman H, Darragh D, Cohen C, Frank H. Effect of Transcendental Meditation on breathing and respiratory control. Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental and Exercise Physiology 1984 56(3):607-612 Decreased minute ventilation and increased galvanic skin resistance were found during the Transcendental Meditation technique, but not during ordinary eyes-closed relaxation. Further measurements suggests that changes in ventilation during the Transcendental Meditation technique are mediated by central neural effects of the practice.

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg3894 | Cardiovascular | Coronary Artery Disease/Improved Exercise Tolerance | 1996

Zamarra JW, Schneider RH, Besseghini I, Robinson DK, Salerno JW. Usefulness of the Transcendental Meditation program in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease.American Journal of Cardiology 1996 77 (10):867-870 This controlled study examined the effect of the TM technique on exercise tolerance in patients with angina pectoris (chest pain on exercise due to heart disease). All patients in this study had proven coronary artery disease, mostly of moderate or severe degree, and positive exercise-stress tests, indicating inadequate blood flow to the heart muscle during exercise. Over an eight month period, subjects who practiced the TM technique showed significant improvements in exercise tolerance and maximum work load achieved during a standard exercise test. In addition, exercise could be continued for longer before signs of oxygen shortage in the heart muscle appeared in the ECG (electrocardiogram), indicating improved oxygenation of the heart muscle. Nine out of ten subjects practicing the TM technique showed improved exercise tolerance, while no improvements were found in a control group.  Improved Cardiovascular Functioning in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: Improved Exercise Tolerance (Increased Exercise Duration; Increased Maximal Workload; Greater Delay of Onset of ST Depression; Greater Reduction of Rate Pressure During Exercise)

Health & Social Behavior | Sociological CPVol6 Pg 4056 | Productivity and Quality of Life Dev of Personality | Decreased Insomnia Workplace Less Stress, Reduced Cigarettes and Hard Liquor | 1993

Alexander CN, Swanson GC, Rainforth MV, Carlisle TW, Todd CC, Oates RM. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on stress reduction, health, and employee development: a prospective study in two occupational settings. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping 1993 6:245-262 This research study found that executives and employees who learned and regularly practiced theTranscendental Meditation program, in contrast to other employees from the same worksites, showed increased employee effectiveness, increased job satisfaction, improved personal and work relationships, reduced job worry and tension, reduced trait anxiety, decreased insomnia and decreased fatigue, reduced cigarette and hard liquor use, improved health and greater calm (lower skin conductance during task performance. The groups of participants in the Transcendental Meditation program also showed, in contrast to controls, improvement on three components found to underlie each of these measures, – increased occupational coherence, increased physiological settledness, and increased satisfaction with professional and personal life. This study examined health, stress and employee development in two settings in the automotive industry; a large manufacturing plant of a Fortune 100 company and a small sales distribution company. Employees who learned the TM technique showed significantly greater improvements on a wide variety of measures, including: reduced physiological arousal; decreases in anxiety, job tension, insomnia and fatigue; reduced consumption of cigarettes and hard liquor; and improved general health.

Health & Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections: Reduced Stress | 1989

Dillbeck MC. Transcendental Meditation alleviates stress. In J-M Etkins (ed.), The State of Corrections:Proceedings of American Correctional Association Annual Conferences, 1988 (pp.157-161). Laurel, Maryland: American Correctional Association, 1989

Health & Social Behavior | Review CPVol 2Pg 1269 | Health | Health & Social Welfare | 1978

Gräf D. Die Transzendentale Meditation (TM) und ihre therapeutischen Möglichkeiten. Zeitschrift für Allgemeinmedizin 1978 54(12):701-709 Research findings on the Transcendental Meditation program are discussed with respect to its benefits in the fields of health and social welfare.

Health & Social Behavior | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg3911 | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse: Reduced Cigarette Smoking | 1994

Royer A. The role of the Transcendental Meditation technique in promoting smoking cessation: a longitudinal study. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 1994 11(1/2):221-238 Decreased Cigarette Consumption; Increased Smoking Quit Rate Over a Two Year Period. This study found that those who learned the Transcendental Meditation technique and practiced it regularly showed a significantly decreased cigarette consumption, as well as increased smoking quit rate. The proportion of subjects who either quit or decreased smoking was significantly related to regularity of practice of the Transcendental Meditation program. These effects were found to be long lasting. There is strong and growing evidence of the health risks and high costs of smoking, yet more than 51 million Americans are regular cigarette smokers (US Health and Human Services, 1988). Although approximately 90% of smokers desire to quit (Orleans, 1985), 80% of those who attempt to quit, fail on their first effort (US Health and Human Services, 1984). One reason for failure seems to be that quitting smoking causes physiological and psychological distress. Another reason some smokers may not quit is because they believe smoking helps them to think better, to feel better (less tense or anxious), to cope with stress, and to keep their weight under control.

Health & Social Behavior | Physiology & Health CPVol6 Pg 4225 | Rehabilitation Neuroendocrine Mechanism | Reduced Substance Abuse | 1994

Walton KG, Levitsky D. A neuroendocrine mechanism for the reduction of drug use and addictions by Transcendental Meditation. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 1994 11(1/2):89-117 This paper outlines a model of the neuro-chemical and endocrine processes associated with chronic stress and their contribution to the development of drug addiction; it also reviews research on the physiological effects of Transcendental Meditation in light of this model, indicating mechanisms of how this technique creates physiological balance and thereby promotes freedom from addictive behaviors.

Health & World Peace | Physiological & Psychological & Sociological | Metabolic & Biochemical & Productivity & Quality of Life | Neurotransmitters: Reduced cortisol and increased serotonin Psychoneuroendocrine mechanism for reduced social stress including city-wide | 2005

Walton KG, Cavanaugh KL, Pugh ND. Effect of group practice of the Transcendental Meditation program on biochemical indicators of stress in non-meditators: a prospective time series study. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):339-376 This study investigates a proposed psycho-neuroendocrine mechanism that may help to explain, at least in part, the observed reductions of behavioral indicators of social stress reported in other studies on the group practice of theTM and TM-Sidhi program. Dynamic regression analysis of time series observations over the experimental period (77 days) found that the daily change in the size of a TM group was a significant predictor of immediate subsequent mean (natural log) overnight excretion rates of (a) cortisol and the main metabolite of serotonin (5-HIAA) and (c) the ratio of rates for 5-HIAA and cortisol. An increase in the day to day size of the group for the afternoon session was a significant predictor of reduced cortisol excretion later that night in a group of 6 non-practitioners living and working up to 20 miles from the group (p=.004) An increase in the daily change of group size also was a significant predictor of increases in both the excretion rate of 5-HIAA (p=.03) and the ratio of excretion rates of 5-HIAA to cortisol (p<.0001)

Health Social Behavior | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg3906 | Productivity and Quality of Life | Decreased Insomnia, Decreased Cigarettes, Increased Mental Health of Industrial Workers | 1990

Haratani T, Hemmi T. Effects of Transcendental Meditation on mental health of industrial workers.Japanese Journal of Industrial Health 1990 32:656 Takashi Haratani This was a five month study conducted by the researchers at Japan’s National Institute of Industrial Health. (A branch of the Japanese Ministry of Labor) industrial employees practicing the TM technique showed increased emotional stability, reduced anxiety, decreased tendency to neurosis and reduced insomnia and smoking compared to controls. Improvement in General Physical and Mental Well-Being in Industrial Workers: Decreased Physical Complaints; Decreased Impulsive Tendency; Reduced Emotional Instability. Overall, employees practicing TM improved significantly on 10 out of 14 mental health scales, whereas controls improved on only one.

 

USA 800-635-7173
info@tm-women.org
Canada 888-821-3016
infocanada@tm-women.org

"Transcendental Meditation doesn't focus on breathing or chanting, like other forms of meditation. Instead, it encourages a restful state of mind beyond thinking...
A 2009 study found Transcendental Meditation helped alleviate stress in college students, while another found it helped reduce blood pressure, anxiety, depression and anger."
—Cleveland Clinic

"A study published in the journal Circulation found that practicing Transcendental Meditation can lower blood pressure and your risk of heart disease and stroke. It could also cut your risk of Alzheimer's Disease by strengthening the communication between different parts of your brain."
—Women's Health

"Transcendental Meditation is a simple, natural technique... This form of meditation allows your body to settle into a state of profound rest and relaxation and your mind to achieve a state of inner peace, without needing to use concentration or effort."
—The Mayo Clinic